Special Issue "Salmonella Persistent Infections"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 September 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Jeongmin Song
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Cornell University
Interests: Salmonella Typhi; typhoid toxin; A2B5 toxins

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The gram-negative bacilli Salmonella affect many millions annually worldwide and cause salmonellosis including the life-threatening disease typhoid fever. Currently, the treatment for Salmonella infections relies largely on vaccination and antibiotics. However, recent epidemiology studies have revealed the worrisome trend that multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant strains of Salmonella are rapidly spreading. The best knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of this important bacterial pathogen will facilitate disease prevention, surveillance and control, and improve diagnostics and may help to facilitate the development of more efficacious vaccines and new therapeutics alternative to antibiotics. Among the dynamic, complex lifecycle of Salmonella, its persistent infection and transmission is one of the least understood areas in the field, although we need to interrupt this stage of infections to effectively tackle salmonellosis. For this Special Issue of Pathogens, we invite you to submit a review or research article related to molecular aspects of Salmonella persistent infections. We look forward to your contribution.

Dr. Jeongmin Song
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Keywords

  • Biology
  • Pathogenesis
  • Host-microbe interactions
  • Interactions with other microbes, both beneficial and pathogenic
  • Effects of various health conditions
  • Colonization and immune evasion
  • Persistent infection
  • Transmission
  • Immune responses
  • Epidemiology
  • Antibiotic resistance
  • Diagnostics
  • Current treatment
  • Vaccine
  • Prevention and control
  • Molecular tools and approaches
  • Animal models

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Control of Persistent Salmonella Infection Relies on Constant Thymic Output Despite Increased Peripheral Antigen-Specific T Cell Immunity
Pathogens 2020, 9(8), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9080605 - 25 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 749
Abstract
Recent thymic emigrants are the youngest subset of peripheral T cells and their involvement in combating persistent bacterial infections has not been explored. Here, we hypothesized that CD4+ recent thymic emigrants are essential immune mediators during persistent Salmonella infection. To test this, [...] Read more.
Recent thymic emigrants are the youngest subset of peripheral T cells and their involvement in combating persistent bacterial infections has not been explored. Here, we hypothesized that CD4+ recent thymic emigrants are essential immune mediators during persistent Salmonella infection. To test this, we thymectomized adult mice either prior to, or during, persistent Salmonella infection. We found that thymic output is crucial in the formation of protective immune responses during the early formation of a Salmonella infection but is dispensable once persistent Salmonella infection is established. Further, we show that thymectomized mice demonstrate increased infection-associated mortality and bacterial burdens. Unexpectedly, numbers of Salmonella-specific CD4+ T cells were significantly increased in thymectomized mice compared to sham control mice. Lastly, we found that T cells from thymectomized mice may be impaired in producing the effector cytokine IL-17 at early time points of infection, compared to thymically intact mice. Together, these results imply a unique role for thymic output in the formation of immune responses against a persistent, enteric pathogen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salmonella Persistent Infections)
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Article
Identification of A Putative T6SS Immunity Islet in Salmonella Typhi
Pathogens 2020, 9(7), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070559 - 11 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1037
Abstract
Typhoid fever is a major global health problem and is the result of systemic infections caused by the human-adapted bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). The pathology underlying S. Typhi infections significantly differ from infections caused by broad [...] Read more.
Typhoid fever is a major global health problem and is the result of systemic infections caused by the human-adapted bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). The pathology underlying S. Typhi infections significantly differ from infections caused by broad host range serovars of the same species, which are a common cause of gastroenteritis. Accordingly, identifying S. Typhi genetic factors that impart functionality absent from broad host range serovars offers insights into its unique biology. Here, we used an in-silico approach to explore the function of an uncharacterized 14-gene S. Typhi genomic islet. Our results indicated that this islet was specific to the S. enterica species, where it was encoded by the Typhi and Paratyphi A serovars, but was generally absent from non-typhoidal serovars. Evidence was gathered using comparative genomics and sequence analysis tools, and indicated that this islet was comprised of Type VI secretion system (T6SS) and contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) genes, the majority of which appeared to encode orphan immunity proteins that protected against the activities of effectors and toxins absent from the S. Typhi genome. We herein propose that this islet represents an immune system that protects S. Typhi against competing bacteria within the human gut. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salmonella Persistent Infections)
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Review

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Review
Enteric Fever Diagnosis: Current Challenges and Future Directions
Pathogens 2021, 10(4), 410; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10040410 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 581
Abstract
Enteric fever is a life-threatening systemic febrile disease caused by Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi (S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi). Unfortunately, the burden of the disease remains high primarily due to the global spread of various drug-resistant Salmonella strains despite continuous [...] Read more.
Enteric fever is a life-threatening systemic febrile disease caused by Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi (S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi). Unfortunately, the burden of the disease remains high primarily due to the global spread of various drug-resistant Salmonella strains despite continuous advancement in the field. An accurate diagnosis is critical for effective control of the disease. However, enteric fever diagnosis based on clinical presentations is challenging due to overlapping symptoms with other febrile illnesses that are also prevalent in endemic areas. Current laboratory tests display suboptimal sensitivity and specificity, and no diagnostic methods are available for identifying asymptomatic carriers. Several research programs have employed systemic approaches to identify more specific biomarkers for early detection and asymptomatic carrier detection. This review discusses the pros and cons of currently available diagnostic tests for enteric fever, the advancement of research toward improved diagnostic tests, and the challenges of discovering new ideal biomarkers and tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salmonella Persistent Infections)
Review
Contributions of Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics to Understanding Salmonella-Host Interactions
Pathogens 2020, 9(7), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070581 - 17 Jul 2020
Viewed by 907
Abstract
As a model pathogen, Salmonella invades both phagocytic and non-phagocytic host cells and adopts an intracellular lifestyle in a membrane-bound compartment during infection. Therefore, a systemic overview of Salmonella adaptations to distinct host cells together with host remodeling will assist us in charting [...] Read more.
As a model pathogen, Salmonella invades both phagocytic and non-phagocytic host cells and adopts an intracellular lifestyle in a membrane-bound compartment during infection. Therefore, a systemic overview of Salmonella adaptations to distinct host cells together with host remodeling will assist us in charting the landscape of host-pathogen interactions. Central to the Salmonella-host interplay are bacterial virulence factors (effectors) that are injected into host cells by type III secretion systems (T3SSs). Despite great progress, functional studies of bacterial effectors have experienced daunting challenges as well. In the last decade, mass spectrometry-based proteomics has evolved into a powerful technological platform that can quantitatively measure thousands of proteins in terms of their expression as well as post-translational modifications. Here, we will review the applications of high-throughput proteomic technologies in understanding the dynamic reprogramming of both Salmonella and host proteomes during the course of infection. Furthermore, we will summarize the progress in utilizing affinity purification-mass spectrometry to screen for host substrates of Salmonella T3SS effectors. Finally, we will critically discuss some limitations/challenges with current proteomic platforms in the context of host-pathogen interactions and highlight some emerging technologies that may offer the promise of tackling these problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Salmonella Persistent Infections)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Control of persistent Salmonella infection relies on constant thymic output despite increased peripheral antigen-specific T cell immunity
Authors: James B. McLachlan
Affiliation: Tulane University School of Medicine Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Abstract: Recent thymic emigrants are the youngest subset of peripheral T cells but their involvement in combating persistent bacterial infections has not been explored. Here, we hypothesized that CD4+ recent thymic emigrants are essential immune mediators during persistent Salmonella infection. To test this, we thymectomized adult mice either prior to, or during, persistent Salmonella infection. We found that thymic output is crucial in the formation of protective immune responses during the early formation of a Salmonella infection but is dispensable once chronic Salmonella infection is established. Further, we show that thymectomized mice demonstrate increased infection-associated mortality and bacterial burdens. Unexpectedly, numbers of Salmonella-specific CD4+ T cells were significantly increased in thymectomized mice compared to sham control mice. Lastly, we found that T cells from thymectomized mice may be impaired in producing the effector cytokine IL-17 at early time points of infection, compared to thymically intact mice. Together, these results imply a unique role for thymic output in the formation of immune responses against a persistent, enteric pathogen.

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