Special Issue "SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID-19 Disease"

A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Immunological Responses and Immune Defense Mechanisms".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Luis Martinez-Sobrido
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14625, USA
2. Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78245, USA
Interests: virology; vaccines; antivirals; influenza viruses; arenaviruses; Zika virus; coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; innate immunity; adaptive immunity; interferon; virus-host interactions
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Marta L. DeDiego
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, National Center for Biotechnology-Spanish National Research Council, Madrid 28049, Spain
Interests: virology; influenza; coronavirus; innate immunity; virus-host interactions; interferons; inflammation; vaccines; antivirals
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In December 2019, a previously unknown coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China. SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a world-wide pandemic that has dramatically impacted the global human public health and socioeconomic activities across the world with a magnitude not seen since the “Spanish flu” pandemic in 1918/1919.

Global efforts to develop a vaccine have resulted in several promising COVID-19 vaccine candidates with excellent safety and efficacy profiles. Currently, three vaccines have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for emergency use for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

The goal of this Special Issue “SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID-19 Disease” is to cover aspects related to viral infection and pathogenesis, epidemiology and evolution, virus–host interactions, prophylactic vaccine development, therapeutic antivirals, neutralizing antibodies, innate and adaptive immune responses, reverse genetics approaches, recombinant viruses, reporter-expressing viruses, animal models of viral infection, pathogenesis and transmission, and COVID-19 disease.

We hope this Special Issue will provide researchers with new insights on the biology of SARS-CoV-2 infection and its associated COVID-19 disease with the goal of unifying efforts to develop effective countermeasures to protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 disease.

Prof. Dr. Luis Martinez-Sobrido
Dr. Marta L. DeDiego
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pathogens is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • SARS-CoV-2
  • COVID-19
  • viral infection
  • viral pathogenesis
  • viral transmission
  • epidemiology and evolution
  • virus-host interactions
  • prophylactics
  • vaccines
  • therapeutics
  • antivirals
  • neutralizing antibodies
  • innate immunity
  • adaptive immunity
  • reverse genetics systems
  • animal models

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence and Neutralizing Antibody Response after the First and Second COVID-19 Pandemic Wave in Croatia
Pathogens 2021, 10(6), 774; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060774 - 20 Jun 2021
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Abstract
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus with a pandemic spread. So far, a total of 349,910 SARS-CoV-2 cases and 7687 deaths were reported in Croatia. We analyzed the seroprevalence and neutralizing (NT) antibody response in the Croatian general [...] Read more.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus with a pandemic spread. So far, a total of 349,910 SARS-CoV-2 cases and 7687 deaths were reported in Croatia. We analyzed the seroprevalence and neutralizing (NT) antibody response in the Croatian general population after the first (May–July 2020) and second (December 2020–February 2021) pandemic wave. Initial serological testing was performed using a commercial ELISA, with confirmation of reactive samples by a virus neutralization test (VNT). A significant difference in the overall seroprevalence rate was found after the first (ELISA 2.2%, VNT 0.2%) and second waves (ELISA 25.1%, VNT 18.7%). Seropositive individuals were detected in all age groups, with significant differences according to age. The lowest prevalence of NT antibodies was documented in the youngest (<10 years; 16.1%) and the oldest (60–69/70+ years; 16.0% and 12.8%, respectively) age groups. However, these age groups showed the highest median NT titers (32–64). In other groups, seropositivity varied from 19.3% to 21.5%. A significant weak positive correlation between binding antibody level as detected by ELISA and VNT titer (rho = 0.439, p < 0.001) was observed. SARS-CoV-2 NT antibody titers seem to be age-related, with the highest NT activity in children under 10 years and individuals above 50 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID-19 Disease)
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Communication
Dolosigranulum pigrum Modulates Immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in Respiratory Epithelial Cells
Pathogens 2021, 10(6), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060634 - 21 May 2021
Viewed by 1023
Abstract
In a previous work, we demonstrated that nasally administered Dolosigranulum pigrum 040417 beneficially modulated the respiratory innate immune response triggered by the activation of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and improved protection against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) in mice. In this work, we aimed [...] Read more.
In a previous work, we demonstrated that nasally administered Dolosigranulum pigrum 040417 beneficially modulated the respiratory innate immune response triggered by the activation of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and improved protection against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) in mice. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of D. pigrum 040417 in human respiratory epithelial cells and the potential ability of this immunobiotic bacterium to increase the protection against Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The respiratory commensal bacterium D. pigrum 040417 differentially modulated the production of IFN-β, IL-6, CXCL8, CCL5 and CXCL10 in the culture supernatants of Calu-3 cells stimulated with poly(I:C) or challenged with SARS-CoV-2. The differential cytokine profile induced by the 040417 strain was associated with a significant reduction in viral replication and cellular damage after coronavirus infection. Of note, D. pigrum 030918 was not able to modify the resistance of Calu-3 cells to SARS-CoV-2 infection, indicating a strain-specific immunomodulatory effect for respiratory commensal bacteria. The findings of this work improve our understanding of the immunological mechanisms involved in the modulation of respiratory immunity induced by respiratory commensal bacteria, by demonstrating their specific effect on respiratory epithelial cells. In addition, the results suggest that particular strains such as D. pigrum 040417 could be used as a promising alternative for combating SARS-CoV-2 and reducing the severity of COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID-19 Disease)
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Article
Immunogenicity of Adjuvanted Psoralen-Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines and SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein DNA Vaccines in BALB/c Mice
Pathogens 2021, 10(5), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050626 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 948
Abstract
The development of a safe and effective vaccine to protect against COVID-19 is a global priority due to the current high SARS-CoV-2 infection rate. Currently, there are over 160 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates at the clinical or pre-clinical stages of development. Of these, there [...] Read more.
The development of a safe and effective vaccine to protect against COVID-19 is a global priority due to the current high SARS-CoV-2 infection rate. Currently, there are over 160 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates at the clinical or pre-clinical stages of development. Of these, there are only three whole-virus vaccine candidates produced using β-propiolactone or formalin inactivation. Here, we prepared a whole-virus SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (SARS-CoV-2 PsIV) using a novel psoralen inactivation method and evaluated its immunogenicity in mice using two different adjuvants, alum and Advax-2. We compared the immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 PsIV against SARS-CoV-2 DNA vaccines expressing either full-length or truncated spike proteins. We also compared the psoralen-inactivated vaccine against a DNA prime, psoralen-inactivated vaccine boost regimen. After two doses, the psoralen-inactivated vaccine, when administered with alum or Advax-2 adjuvants, generated a dose-dependent neutralizing antibody responses in mice. Overall, the pattern of cytokine ELISPOT responses to antigen-stimulation observed in this study indicates that SARS-CoV-2 PsIV with the alum adjuvant promotes a Th2-type response, while SARS-CoV-2 PsIV with the Advax-2 adjuvant promotes a Th1-type response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID-19 Disease)
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