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Article

SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence and Neutralizing Antibody Response after the First and Second COVID-19 Pandemic Wave in Croatia

1
Department of Virology, Croatian Institute of Public Health, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
3
Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases with Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
4
Department of Epidemiology, Croatian Institute of Public Health, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
5
Environmental Health Department, Croatian Institute of Public Health, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
6
Department of Laboratory Diagnostics, Children’s Hospital Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
7
Clinical Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Merkur University Hospital, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
8
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Teaching Institute of Public Health of Split-Dalmatia County, 21000 Split, Croatia
9
Department of Microbiology, Osijek-Baranja County Institute of Public Health, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
10
Department of Serology, Istria County Institute of Public Health, 52100 Pula, Croatia
11
Department of Microbiology, Varazdin County Institute of Public Health, 42000 Varazdin, Croatia
12
Department for Monitoring and Improving of School and Youth Health, Croatian Institute of Public Health, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
13
Department of Parasitology, Croatian Institute of Public Health, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors with equal contributions.
Academic Editor: Luis Martinez-Sobrido
Pathogens 2021, 10(6), 774; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060774
Received: 15 May 2021 / Revised: 16 June 2021 / Accepted: 19 June 2021 / Published: 20 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID-19 Disease)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus with a pandemic spread. So far, a total of 349,910 SARS-CoV-2 cases and 7687 deaths were reported in Croatia. We analyzed the seroprevalence and neutralizing (NT) antibody response in the Croatian general population after the first (May–July 2020) and second (December 2020–February 2021) pandemic wave. Initial serological testing was performed using a commercial ELISA, with confirmation of reactive samples by a virus neutralization test (VNT). A significant difference in the overall seroprevalence rate was found after the first (ELISA 2.2%, VNT 0.2%) and second waves (ELISA 25.1%, VNT 18.7%). Seropositive individuals were detected in all age groups, with significant differences according to age. The lowest prevalence of NT antibodies was documented in the youngest (<10 years; 16.1%) and the oldest (60–69/70+ years; 16.0% and 12.8%, respectively) age groups. However, these age groups showed the highest median NT titers (32–64). In other groups, seropositivity varied from 19.3% to 21.5%. A significant weak positive correlation between binding antibody level as detected by ELISA and VNT titer (rho = 0.439, p < 0.001) was observed. SARS-CoV-2 NT antibody titers seem to be age-related, with the highest NT activity in children under 10 years and individuals above 50 years. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; seroprevalence; ELISA; VNT; Croatia COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; seroprevalence; ELISA; VNT; Croatia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vilibic-Cavlek, T.; Stevanovic, V.; Ilic, M.; Barbic, L.; Capak, K.; Tabain, I.; Krleza, J.L.; Ferenc, T.; Hruskar, Z.; Topic, R.Z.; Kaliterna, V.; Antolovic-Pozgain, A.; Kucinar, J.; Koscak, I.; Mayer, D.; Sviben, M.; Antolasic, L.; Milasincic, L.; Bucic, L.; Ferencak, I.; Kaic, B. SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence and Neutralizing Antibody Response after the First and Second COVID-19 Pandemic Wave in Croatia. Pathogens 2021, 10, 774. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060774

AMA Style

Vilibic-Cavlek T, Stevanovic V, Ilic M, Barbic L, Capak K, Tabain I, Krleza JL, Ferenc T, Hruskar Z, Topic RZ, Kaliterna V, Antolovic-Pozgain A, Kucinar J, Koscak I, Mayer D, Sviben M, Antolasic L, Milasincic L, Bucic L, Ferencak I, Kaic B. SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence and Neutralizing Antibody Response after the First and Second COVID-19 Pandemic Wave in Croatia. Pathogens. 2021; 10(6):774. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060774

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana, Vladimir Stevanovic, Maja Ilic, Ljubo Barbic, Krunoslav Capak, Irena Tabain, Jasna Lenicek Krleza, Thomas Ferenc, Zeljka Hruskar, Renata Zrinski Topic, Vanja Kaliterna, Arlen Antolovic-Pozgain, Jasmina Kucinar, Iva Koscak, Dijana Mayer, Mario Sviben, Ljiljana Antolasic, Ljiljana Milasincic, Lovro Bucic, Ivana Ferencak, and Bernard Kaic. 2021. "SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence and Neutralizing Antibody Response after the First and Second COVID-19 Pandemic Wave in Croatia" Pathogens 10, no. 6: 774. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060774

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