Rotavirus Epidemiology: Host, Climate and Vaccine Influences
A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2018) | Viewed by 41140
Interests: innate immunity; microbiome; nutrition; viral epidemiology; vaccines; rotaviruses; coronaviruses
Rotaviruses (RVs) are a major cause of acute viral gastroenteritis in young animals and children worldwide. Immunocompetent adults of different species are resistant to clinical disease due to post-infection immunity, immune system maturation and physiological changes of the gut. Of the nine RV genogroups (A-I) currently identified, RV A, B, and C (RVA, RVB, and RVC, respectively) are the most common groups that infect humans and animals, with the highest prevalence of RVA strains that represent one of the most significant causes of acute dehydrating diarrhea from public health and veterinary health perspectives. RVA, RVB, RVC, RVE, RVH and RVI have been detected in sporadic, endemic or epidemic infections of various mammalian species including humans, whereas RVD, RVF and RVG are exclusively found in poultry. For highly genetically diverse RVA strains, 27 different G- and 37 P-genotypes have been described in humans and animals to date, while genotype classification is being developed for other groups. RVs are characterized by clear seasonality and substantial spatio-temporal variations of the genotype and genogroup prevalence. Despite the availability and routine use of commercial vaccines in humans and animals, morbidity and mortality remain high in neonates and children under five in developing countries. This emphasizes the need for improved understanding of the factors influencing susceptibility to and increased severity of RV diarrhea observed in some populations. Additionally, additional studies to understand the increased ability of some genogroups/genotypes to generate re-assorted variants and cross interspecies barriers are needed, including the potential interactions of different porcine RV genotypes with histo-blood group antigens, commensal microbiota and other intestinal pathogens.
In this Special Issue, we will summarize the current knowledge on RV geography and different host-related and environmental factors that influence it and discuss how can this information be used to improve rotavirus control and alleviate the diarrheal burden in humans and animals.
Prof. Dr. Anastasia N. Vlasova
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- Rotaviurus epidemiology
- rotavirus vaccines
- histo-blood group antigens
- rotavirus immunity
- rotavirus pathogenesis