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Implications of Dietary Guidance for Sport and Exercise

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Sports Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 August 2022) | Viewed by 39259

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Physical Education and Sport Department, Faculty of Education and Sport, University of Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Vitoria-Gazteiz, Spain
Interests: elite sport; recovery from fatigue; training; physiology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The importance of nutrition in maintaining health and improving sport performance is well known. Each category of sports requires a specific intake of food and supplements. However, many specific details concerning nutrition are not widely understood, limiting performance in sports and the after the exercise recovery process.

Nutritional timing, hydration, diet, and nutritional supplementation are key to increasing athletes´ performance. Nutritional strategies can also allow the recovery period to be shorter, which can lead to a higher training and competition load.

Additionally, athletes often suffer from gastrointestinal disturbances due to high pressure to win, long-distance travel, or the nutritional disorders they experience to meet their specific demands. In this context, it is important to focus not only on the athletes’ performance but also on their health and recovery.

This Special Issue highlights potential future nutritional strategies to improve sports performance, health, and recovery after exercise.

Prof. Dr. Julio Calleja-González
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • sport performance
  • supplementation
  • health
  • physiology
  • nutrition
  • conditioning

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 207 KiB  
Editorial
Implications of Dietary Guidance for Sport and Exercise
by Julio Calleja-González
Nutrients 2023, 15(18), 3978; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15183978 - 14 Sep 2023
Viewed by 919
Abstract
The importance of nutrition in maintaining health and improving sports performance is well known [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implications of Dietary Guidance for Sport and Exercise)

Research

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11 pages, 1782 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dietary Intervention and Education on Selected Biochemical Parameters and Nutritional Habits of Young Soccer Players
by Monika Grabia, Renata Markiewicz-Żukowska, Joanna Bielecka, Anna Puścion-Jakubik and Katarzyna Socha
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3681; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183681 - 06 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2566
Abstract
In adolescence, the body requires sufficient amounts of adequate nutrients. This is especially important in the case of young athletes, for whom a nutrition plan should be as significant as a proper training plan. The aim of the study was a 17-week follow-up [...] Read more.
In adolescence, the body requires sufficient amounts of adequate nutrients. This is especially important in the case of young athletes, for whom a nutrition plan should be as significant as a proper training plan. The aim of the study was a 17-week follow-up of the effects of individual and group nutrition intervention on changes in eating habits and selected biochemical parameters. 46 young soccer players aged 12–17 from the Soccer Academy in Northeastern Poland completed the study. One group received only individual recommendations, while the other additionally received group nutrition education. As a result of the dietary education, teenagers from the latter group consumed less saccharose (44 g vs. 39.2 g) in favor of digestible carbohydrates (266 g vs. 273 g) and dietary fiber (19.7 g vs. 22.2 g), further emphasizing the health-promoting profile of diets. The amount of fluid consumed (33% vs. 48% above 2 L of water a day) and the habits of the peri-workout hydration routine were also improved. Many of the participants (41%) reported faster regeneration while 26% experienced an overall better well-being. The short-term intervention produced positive results, but nevertheless it is the implementation of long-term dietary improvement schemes involving parents and coaches that should be the direction of future approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implications of Dietary Guidance for Sport and Exercise)
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13 pages, 2005 KiB  
Article
Fluid Balance and Thermoregulatory Responses during Wheelchair Basketball Games in Hot vs. Temperate Conditions
by Fabian Grossmann, Claudio Perret, Bart Roelands, Romain Meeusen and Joelle Leonie Flueck
Nutrients 2022, 14(14), 2930; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14142930 - 17 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1725
Abstract
The impaired vaso- and sudomotor functions limit sweat capacity in individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) and might increase the risk for heat-related illness and decreased performance, especially in hot conditions (HOT). This study investigated the differences in fluid balance and thermal [...] Read more.
The impaired vaso- and sudomotor functions limit sweat capacity in individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) and might increase the risk for heat-related illness and decreased performance, especially in hot conditions (HOT). This study investigated the differences in fluid balance and thermal responses between wheelchair basketball (WCB) games in HOT and temperate conditions (TMP). Eleven male WCB athletes (39.8 y, 82.8 kg) with SCI (lesion level C5-L4) participated, five in HOT (31 °C) and eight in TMP games (21 °C). Fluid balance, sweat rate, body core temperature, distance, velocity and thermal sensation were assessed. The relative change in body mass was higher in the HOT group (median: −0.35%, interquartile-range: 0.15%, p = 0.02) compared to TMP (+0.11%, 0.35%) group. The sweat rate was significantly higher in the HOT group (0.93 L/h, 0.58 L/h, p = 0.02) compared to the TMP groups (0.48 L/h, 0.19 L/h). Body core temperature increased significantly higher in the TMP group (1.05 °C, 0.15 °C, p = 0.01) compared to the HOT group (0.8 °C, 0.4 °C). The mean velocity (HOT: 1.12 m/s, 0.11 m/s, TMP: 1.07 m/s, 0.08 m/s, p = 0.54) did not differ between the games. The WCB game in HOT leads to significantly higher sweat rate and loss in body mass compared to TMP. Even relative body mass loss was less than 2%. Athletes thus have to be supported with enough fluid, especially during games in HOT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implications of Dietary Guidance for Sport and Exercise)
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11 pages, 1005 KiB  
Article
Dietary-Lifestyle Patterns Associated with Bone Turnover Markers, and Bone Mineral Density in Adult Male Distance Amateur Runners—A Cross-Sectional Study
by Aleksandra Bykowska-Derda, Magdalena Zielińska-Dawidziak and Magdalena Czlapka-Matyasik
Nutrients 2022, 14(10), 2048; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14102048 - 13 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2195
Abstract
Background: Excessive mileage can be detrimental to bone mineral density among long-distance runners. The negative effects of mileage could be alleviated by appropriate nutrition. The purpose of this study was to analyse the dietary-lifestyle patterns in relation to bone mineral density and bone [...] Read more.
Background: Excessive mileage can be detrimental to bone mineral density among long-distance runners. The negative effects of mileage could be alleviated by appropriate nutrition. The purpose of this study was to analyse the dietary-lifestyle patterns in relation to bone mineral density and bone turnover markers among amateur marathoners. Methods: A total of 53 amateur male distance runners were divided into two clusters by k-means cluster analysis. Bone mineral density was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Blood was drawn to analyse bone resorption marker C-terminal telopeptide (cTX) and bone formation marker amino-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP). Food frequency intake and lifestyle information were measured by multicomponent questionnaire KomPAN®. Yearly average mileage per month was taken from each participant. Results: There were two distinguished clusters: Less-healthy-more-active-low-Z-score (LessHA) (n = 33) and More-healthy-less-active-high-Z-score (MoreHLA) (n = 20). LessHA had a lower frequency intake of pro-healthy food groups, a lower number of meals during a typical day, and a higher mileage training than the group of athletes who followed the MoreHLA. Athletes following the LessHA pattern also had a lower Z-score in the lumbar spine and femoral bone and a lower PINP. Conclusion: The current study suggests that pro-healthy dietary patterns and lower mileage may favour higher bone mineral density in male amateur marathoners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implications of Dietary Guidance for Sport and Exercise)
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14 pages, 479 KiB  
Article
Combined Effects of Citrulline Plus Nitrate-Rich Beetroot Extract Co-Supplementation on Maximal and Endurance-Strength and Aerobic Power in Trained Male Triathletes: A Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
by José Burgos, Aitor Viribay, Diego Fernández-Lázaro, Julio Calleja-González, Josefa González-Santos and Juan Mielgo-Ayuso
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010040 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6341
Abstract
Citrulline (CIT) and nitrate-rich beetroot extract (BR) are ergogenic aids and nitric oxide (NO) precursors. In addition, both supplements seem to have other actions at the level of muscle metabolism that can benefit strength and aerobic power performance. Both supplements have been studied [...] Read more.
Citrulline (CIT) and nitrate-rich beetroot extract (BR) are ergogenic aids and nitric oxide (NO) precursors. In addition, both supplements seem to have other actions at the level of muscle metabolism that can benefit strength and aerobic power performance. Both supplements have been studied in numerous investigations in isolation. However, scientific evidence combining both supplements is scarce, and to the best of the authors’ knowledge, there is no current study of endurance athletes. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 9 weeks of CIT plus BR supplementation on maximal and endurance-strength performance and aerobic power in male triathletes. This study was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial where participants (n = 32) were randomized into four different groups: placebo group (PLG; n = 8), CIT plus BR group (CIT- BRG; 3 g/kg/day of CIT plus 3 mg/kg/day of nitrates (NO3); n = 8), CIT group (CITG; 3 g/kg/day; n = 8) and BR group (BRG; 3 mg/kg/day of NO3; n = 8). Before (T1) and after 9 weeks (T2), four physical condition tests were carried out in order to assess sport performance: the horizontal jump test (HJUMP), handgrip dynamometer test, 1-min abdominal tests (1-MAT) and finally, the Cooper test. Although, no significant interactions (time × supplementation groups) were found for the strength tests (p > 0.05), the CIT- BRG supplementation presented a trend on HJUMP and 1-MAT tests confirmed by significant increase between two study moments in CIT-BRG. Likewise, CIT-BRG presented significant interactions in the aerobic power test confirmed by this group’s improve estimated VO2max during the study with respect to the other study groups (p = 0.002; η2p = 0.418). In summary, supplementing with 3 g/day of CIT and 2.1 g/day of BR (300 mg/day of NO3) for 9 weeks could increase maximal and endurance strength. Furthermore, when compared to CIT or BR supplementation alone, this combination improved performance in tests related to aerobic power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implications of Dietary Guidance for Sport and Exercise)
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15 pages, 796 KiB  
Article
A Glimpse of the Sports Nutrition Awareness in Spanish Basketball Players
by Ignacio Escribano-Ott, Juan Mielgo-Ayuso and Julio Calleja-González
Nutrients 2022, 14(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010027 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5435
Abstract
Basketball is a team sport, with many fans and practitioners worldwide from all ages and levels. In all cases, players accumulate high levels of fatigue, and there is also limited time to recover between games or practices. In particular, nutrition plays a key [...] Read more.
Basketball is a team sport, with many fans and practitioners worldwide from all ages and levels. In all cases, players accumulate high levels of fatigue, and there is also limited time to recover between games or practices. In particular, nutrition plays a key role in optimizing performance and recovery. However, it is typical to observe erroneous nutritional behaviors among basketball players. It has been theorized that these behaviors are influenced by habits acquired based on the individual’s knowledge. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to conduct a descriptive research of the sports nutrition knowledge and practices in a sample of Spanish basketball players, from athletes under 18 years old (n = 69) to nonprofessional (n = 14) and professional adult players (n = 21). The sample was comprised of 49 men and 55 women. This was a transversal, cross-sectional, observational and descriptive study. All participants (n = 104) completed an anonymous online survey in order to analyze their sports nutrition knowledge and practices. In view of the obtained results, we can conclude that the knowledge of sport-specific nutrition in players under 18 years old, as well as non-professional and professional adult basketball players, is insufficient through all the categories and levels. The lack of professional support and time management difficulties were identified as some of the main barriers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implications of Dietary Guidance for Sport and Exercise)
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Review

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24 pages, 3111 KiB  
Review
Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Exercise with Predominance of Aerobic Metabolism in Trained Population: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression
by Asier Santibañez-Gutierrez, Julen Fernández-Landa, Julio Calleja-González, Anne Delextrat and Juan Mielgo-Ayuso
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030622 - 30 Jan 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5023
Abstract
The scientific literature about probiotic intake and its effect on sports performance is growing. Therefore, the main aim of this systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression was to review all information about the effects of probiotic supplementation on performance tests with predominance of aerobic [...] Read more.
The scientific literature about probiotic intake and its effect on sports performance is growing. Therefore, the main aim of this systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression was to review all information about the effects of probiotic supplementation on performance tests with predominance of aerobic metabolism in trained populations (athletes and/or Division I players and/or trained population: ≥8 h/week and/or ≥5 workouts/week). A structured search was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA®) statement and PICOS guidelines in PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science (WOS), and Scopus international databases from inception to 1 November 2021. Studies involving probiotic supplementation in trained population and execution of performance test with aerobic metabolism predominance (test lasted more than 5 min) were considered for inclusion. Fifteen articles were included in the final systematic review (in total, 388 participants were included). After 3 studies were removed due to a lack of data for the meta-analysis and meta-regression, 12 studies with 232 participants were involved. With the objective of assessing the risk of bias of included studies, Cochrane Collaboration Guidelines and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale were performed. For all included studies the following data was extracted: authors, year of publication, study design, the size of the sample, probiotic administration (dose and time), and characteristics of participants. The random effects model and pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) were used according to Hedges’ g for the meta-analysis. In order to determine if dose and duration covariates could predict probiotic effects, a meta-regression was also conducted. Results showed a small positive and significant effect on the performance test with aerobic metabolic predominance (SMD = 0.29; CI = 0.08–0.50; p < 0.05). Moreover, the subgroup analysis displayed significant greater benefits when the dose was ≥30 × 109 colony forming units (CFU) (SMD, 0.47; CI, 0.05 to 0.89; p < 0.05), when supplementation duration was ≤4 weeks (SMD, 0.44; CI, 0.05 to 0.84; p < 0.05), when single strain probiotics were used (SMD, 0.33; CI, 0.06 to 0.60; p < 0.05), when participants were males (SMD, 0.30; CI, 0.04 to 0.56; p < 0.05), and when the test was performed to exhaustion (SMD, 0.45; CI, 0.05 to 0.48; p < 0.05). However, with references to the findings of the meta-regression, selected covariates did not predict probiotic effects in highly trained population. In summary, the current systematic review and meta-analysis supported the potential effects of probiotics supplementation to improve performance in a test in which aerobic metabolism is predominant in trained population. However, more research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms of action of this supplement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implications of Dietary Guidance for Sport and Exercise)
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20 pages, 963 KiB  
Review
Effect of Acute and Chronic Oral l-Carnitine Supplementation on Exercise Performance Based on the Exercise Intensity: A Systematic Review
by Juan Mielgo-Ayuso, Laura Pietrantonio, Aitor Viribay, Julio Calleja-González, Jerónimo González-Bernal and Diego Fernández-Lázaro
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4359; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124359 - 03 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 9510
Abstract
l-Carnitine (l-C) and any of its forms (glycine-propionyl l-Carnitine (GPL-C) or l-Carnitine l-tartrate (l-CLT)) has been frequently recommended as a supplement to improve sports performance due to, among others, its role in fat metabolism and [...] Read more.
l-Carnitine (l-C) and any of its forms (glycine-propionyl l-Carnitine (GPL-C) or l-Carnitine l-tartrate (l-CLT)) has been frequently recommended as a supplement to improve sports performance due to, among others, its role in fat metabolism and in maintaining the mitochondrial acetyl-CoA/CoA ratio. The main aim of the present systematic review was to determine the effects of oral l-C supplementation on moderate- (50–79% V˙O2 max) and high-intensity (≥80% V˙O2 max) exercise performance and to show the effective doses and ideal timing of its intake. A structured search was performed according to the PRISMA® statement and the PICOS guidelines in the Web of Science (WOS) and Scopus databases, including selected data obtained up to 24 October 2021. The search included studies where l-C or glycine-propionyl l-Carnitine (GPL-C) supplementation was compared with a placebo in an identical situation and tested its effects on high and/or low–moderate performance. The trials that used the supplementation of l-C together with additional supplements were eliminated. There were no applied filters on physical fitness level, race, or age of the participants. The methodological quality of studies was evaluated by the McMaster Critical Review Form. Of the 220 articles obtained, 11 were finally included in this systematic review. Six studies used l-C, while three studies used l-CLT, and two others combined the molecule propionyl l-Carnitine (PL-C) with GPL-C. Five studies analyzed chronic supplementation (4–24 weeks) and six studies used an acute administration (<7 days). The administration doses in this chronic supplementation varied from 1 to 3 g/day; in acute supplementation, oral l-C supplementation doses ranged from 3 to 4 g. On the one hand, the effects of oral l-C supplementation on high-intensity exercise performance variables were analyzed in nine studies. Four of them measured the effects of chronic supplementation (lower rating of perceived exertion (RPE) after 30 min at 80% V˙O2 max on cycle ergometer and higher work capacity in “all-out” tests, peak power in a Wingate test, and the number of repetitions and volume lifted in leg press exercises), and five studies analyzed the effects of acute supplementation (lower RPE after graded exercise test on the treadmill until exhaustion and higher peak and average power in the Wingate cycle ergometer test). On the other hand, the effects of l-C supplementation on moderate exercise performance variables were observed in six studies. Out of those, three measured the effect of an acute supplementation, and three described the effect of a chronic supplementation, but no significant improvements on performance were found. In summary, l-C supplementation with 3 to 4 g ingested between 60 and 90 min before testing or 2 to 2.72 g/day for 9 to 24 weeks improved high-intensity exercise performance. However, chronic or acute l-C or GPL-C supplementation did not present improvements on moderate exercise performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implications of Dietary Guidance for Sport and Exercise)
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Other

18 pages, 1364 KiB  
Systematic Review
Ergo-Nutritional Intervention in Basketball: A Systematic Review
by Ignacio Escribano-Ott, Julio Calleja-González and Juan Mielgo-Ayuso
Nutrients 2022, 14(3), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14030638 - 02 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4518
Abstract
Using nutritional supplements is a widespread strategy among basketball players to ensure the appropriate provision of energy and nutrients to avoid certain complaints. Particularly in basketball, there is no consensus on the type, quantity or form of use in which these supplements should [...] Read more.
Using nutritional supplements is a widespread strategy among basketball players to ensure the appropriate provision of energy and nutrients to avoid certain complaints. Particularly in basketball, there is no consensus on the type, quantity or form of use in which these supplements should be administered. Therefore, the main aim of this systematic review is to highlight the ergo-nutritional aids that may be effective in basketball. A structured search was carried out following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA®) guidelines in the Medline/PubMed and Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases until 31 December 2021; no year restriction was applied to the search strategy. There were no filters applied to the basketball players’ level, gender, race, or age to increase the power of the analysis. The results of this systematic review have shown that the effective dose of caffeine to enhance anaerobic performance and the feeling of vigorousness and energy ranges from 3 to 6 mg·kg−1, showing more positive effects when is supplemented 60–75 min before exercise in the morning and in test-based task. On the other hand, vitamin E (ranging from 200 to 268 mg), vitamin D (10,000 IU) and EPA (2 g) may have a potential role in recovery and wellness. The primary limitation of this study is the scarcity of studies related to nutritional supplementation in basketball players. However, a major strength is that this is the first systematic review describing what ergo-nutritional aids may be specifically helpful for basketball. Despite the need for future studies, certain nutritional supplements may have promising advantages for basketball (long-term supplementation of nitrates for recovery), whereas others (β-alanine, sodium bicarbonate, and acute nitrate supplementation) might theoretically be regarded as not interesting for basketball, or even not recommended by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as bovine colostrum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implications of Dietary Guidance for Sport and Exercise)
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