Special Issue "Nutrition, microRNAs and Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Kazuki Mochizuki
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Yamanashi
Interests: lifestyle diseases; daily nutrient intake; microRNA; epigenetics; biomakers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nutrient intakes affect the transcriptional and translational levels of genes, in particular metabolic genes. The expressional changes of metabolic genes induce many chronic diseases, including lifestyle diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, lipid abnomalities, and their complications. Recent advances have suggested that expression changes of metabolic genes by nutrient intakes are regulated by a novel mechanism based on microRNAs. MicroRNAs regulates expression of a set of genes by regulating mRNA stability and protein translation. Furthermore, microRNAs can alter expression of genes by regulating epigenetic memories such as histone modifications and DNA methylation. In addition, some microRNAs are secreted to blood in exosomes, and daily nutrient intakes and risk of development of lifestyle diseases can be assessed by microRNAs in blood. Based on all these, you are invited to submit proposals for manuscripts that fit the objectives and topics of this Special Issue.

Dr. Kazuki Mochizuki
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nutrient intake
  • MicroRNA
  • Epigenetics
  • Exosome
  • Biomarker
  • Metabolic gene
  • Human health
  • Lifestyle diseases

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Enhanced GIP Secretion in Obesity Is Associated with Biochemical Alteration and miRNA Contribution to the Development of Liver Steatosis
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020476 - 13 Feb 2020
Abstract
Nutrient excess enhances glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) secretion, which may in turn contribute to the development of liver steatosis. We hypothesized that elevated GIP levels in obesity may affect markers of liver injury through microRNAs. The study involved 128 subjects (body mass index [...] Read more.
Nutrient excess enhances glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) secretion, which may in turn contribute to the development of liver steatosis. We hypothesized that elevated GIP levels in obesity may affect markers of liver injury through microRNAs. The study involved 128 subjects (body mass index (BMI) 25–40). Fasting and postprandial GIP, glucose, insulin, and lipids, as well as fasting alanine aminotransferase (ALT), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), cytokeratin-18, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-19, and FGF-21 were determined. TaqMan low density array was used for quantitative analysis of blood microRNAs. Fasting GIP was associated with ALT [β = 0.16 (confidence interval (CI): 0.01–0.32)], triglycerides [β = 0.21 (95% CI: 0.06–0.36], and FGF-21 [β = 0.20 (95%CI: 0.03–0.37)]; and postprandial GIP with GGT [β = 0.17 (95%CI: 0.03–0.32)]. The odds ratio for elevated fatty liver index (>73%) was 2.42 (95%CI: 1.02–5.72) for high GIP versus low GIP patients. The miRNAs profile related to a high GIP plasma level included upregulated miR-136-5p, miR-320a, miR-483-5p, miR-520d-5p, miR-520b, miR-30e-3p, and miR-571. Analysis of the interactions of these microRNAs with gene expression pathways suggests their potential contribution to the regulation of the activity of genes associated with insulin resistance, fatty acids metabolism, and adipocytokines signaling. Exaggerated fasting and postprandial secretion of GIP in obesity are associated with elevated liver damage markers as well as FGF-21 plasma levels. Differentially expressed microRNAs suggest additional, epigenetic factors contributing to the gut–liver cross-talk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, microRNAs and Human Health)
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Open AccessCommunication
Circulating miRNAs as Biomarkers of Obesity and Obesity-Associated Comorbidities in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2890; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122890 - 27 Nov 2019
Abstract
Early detection of obesity and its associated comorbidities in children needs priority for the development of effective therapeutic intervention. Circulating miRNAs (microRNAs) have been proposed as biomarkers for obesity and its comorbidities; therefore, we conducted a systematic review to summarize results of studies [...] Read more.
Early detection of obesity and its associated comorbidities in children needs priority for the development of effective therapeutic intervention. Circulating miRNAs (microRNAs) have been proposed as biomarkers for obesity and its comorbidities; therefore, we conducted a systematic review to summarize results of studies that have quantified the profile of miRNAs in children and adolescents with obesity and/or associated disorders. Nine studies aiming to examine differences in miRNA expression levels between children with normal weight and obesity or between obese children with or without cardiometabolic diseases were included in this review. We identified four miRNAs overexpressed in obesity (miR-222, miR-142–3, miR-140-5p, and miR-143) and two miRNAs (miR-122 and miR-34a) overexpressed in children with obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and/or insulin resistance. In conclusion, circulating miRNAs are promising diagnostic biomarkers of obesity-associated diseases such as NAFLD and type 2 diabetes already in childhood. However, more studies in children, using massive search technology and with larger sample sizes, are required to draw any firm conclusions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, microRNAs and Human Health)
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