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Modulation of Host Physiology and Pathophysiology by the Gut Microbiome

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Prebiotics and Probiotics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 July 2023) | Viewed by 23898

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. The Vatche and Tamar Manoukian Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
2. Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Parenteral Nutrition, Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA 90073, USA
Interests: intestinal microbiome; host-microbiome interactions; brain-gut-microbiome axis; intestinal inflammation; obesity; diet and microbiome
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The gut microbiota encompasses a diverse collection of bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses, and protozoans residing in the lumen and mucus layers of the small intestine and colon. There is rapidly growing recognition of the importance of the combined metabolic activity of the gut microbiome, which acts on dietary and host-derived inputs, for host physiologic processes across organ systems. This includes but is not limited to digestion/absorption, gastrointestinal motility, drug metabolism, immune responses, glucose homeostasis, lipid storage, and even behavior. Perturbations of the microbiome have the potential to alter these physiologic relationships in ways that can contribute to pathophysiology in diverse disease states, including gastrointestinal, metabolic, inflammatory, oncologic, and neurobehavioral disorders.

For this Special Issue, we invite the submission of articles that address the role of the gut microbiota in regulating the physiologic properties of their host in health and disease settings. We welcome original research articles and review articles addressing topics within this theme using data derived from either human or animal model studies.

Dr. Jonathan Jacobs
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • intestinal microbiome
  • host-microbiome interactions
  • diet-microbiome interactions
  • gastrointestinal physiology
  • metabolism
  • immune system regulation

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 166 KiB  
Editorial
Modulation of Host Physiology and Pathophysiology by the Gut Microbiome
by Weston R. Gray and Jonathan P. Jacobs
Nutrients 2024, 16(3), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16030361 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1065
Abstract
The human gut microbiome is a highly dynamic community of bacteria, fungi, viruses, archaea, and protozoans that resides within the gastrointestinal tract [...] Full article

Research

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18 pages, 4594 KiB  
Article
Bacillus amyloliquifaciens-Supplemented Camel Milk Suppresses Neuroinflammation of Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in a Mouse Model by Regulating Inflammatory Markers
by Hairul Islam Mohamed Ibrahim, Abdullah Sheikh, Hany Ezzat Khalil and Ashraf Khalifa
Nutrients 2023, 15(3), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15030550 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2381
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis (MS), a distinct autoimmune neuroinflammatory disorder, affects millions of people worldwide, including Saudi Arabia. Changes in the gut microbiome are linked to the development of neuroinflammation via mechanisms that are not fully understood. Prebiotics and probiotics in camel milk that has [...] Read more.
Multiple sclerosis (MS), a distinct autoimmune neuroinflammatory disorder, affects millions of people worldwide, including Saudi Arabia. Changes in the gut microbiome are linked to the development of neuroinflammation via mechanisms that are not fully understood. Prebiotics and probiotics in camel milk that has been fermented have a variety of health benefits. In this study, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens-supplemented camel milk (BASY) was used to assess its preventive effect on MS symptoms in a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-immunized C57BL6J mice model. To this end, MOG-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was established and the level of disease index, pathological scores, and anti-inflammatory markers of BASY-treated mice using macroscopic and microscopic examinations, qPCR and immunoblot were investigated. The results demonstrate that BASY significantly reduced the EAE disease index, increased total microbial load (2.5 fold), and improved the levels of the short-chain fatty acids propionic, butyric and caproic acids in the diseased mice group. Additionally, myeloperoxidase (MPO) proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TGF-β) were regulated by BASY treatment. Significant suppression of MPO and VCAM levels were noticed in the BASY-treated group (from 168 to 111 µM and from 34 to 27 pg/mL, respectively), in comparison to the EAE group. BASY treatment significantly reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines, inflammatory progression related transcripts, and inflammatory progression protein markers. In conclusion, BASY significantly reduced the symptoms of EAE mice and may be used to develop a probiotic-based diet to promote host gut health. The cumulative findings of this study confirm the significant neuroprotection of BASY in the MOG-induced mice model. They could also suggest a novel approach to the treatment of MS-associated disorders. Full article
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16 pages, 4047 KiB  
Article
Roseburia intestinalis and Its Metabolite Butyrate Inhibit Colitis and Upregulate TLR5 through the SP3 Signaling Pathway
by Guangcong Ruan, Minjia Chen, Lu Chen, Fenghua Xu, Zhifeng Xiao, Ailin Yi, Yuting Tian, Yi Ping, Linling Lv, Yi Cheng and Yanling Wei
Nutrients 2022, 14(15), 3041; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14153041 - 25 Jul 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3000
Abstract
The pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) is unclear, but it is generally believed to be closely related to an imbalance in gut microbiota. Roseburia intestinalis (R. intestinalis) might play a key role in suppressing intestinal inflammation, but the mechanism of its [...] Read more.
The pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) is unclear, but it is generally believed to be closely related to an imbalance in gut microbiota. Roseburia intestinalis (R. intestinalis) might play a key role in suppressing intestinal inflammation, but the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory effect is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of R. intestinalis and Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) in relieving mouse colitis. We found that R. intestinalis significantly upregulated the transcription of TLR5 in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and improved colonic inflammation in a colitis mouse model. The flagellin of R. intestinalis activated the release of anti-inflammatory factors (IL-10, TGF-β) and reduced inflammation in IECs. Furthermore, butyrate, the main metabolic product secreted by R. intestinalis, regulated the expression of TLR5 in IECs. Our data show that butyrate increased the binding of the transcription factor Sp3 (specificity protein 3) to the TLR5 promoter regions, upregulating TLR5 transcription. This work provides new insight into the anti-inflammatory effects of R. intestinalis in colitis and a potential target for UC prevention and treatment. Full article
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Review

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24 pages, 3025 KiB  
Review
Relationship between Oat Consumption, Gut Microbiota Modulation, and Short-Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis: An Integrative Review
by Giovanna Alexandre Fabiano, Leila Marie Shinn and Adriane Elisabete Costa Antunes
Nutrients 2023, 15(16), 3534; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15163534 - 11 Aug 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6277
Abstract
The gut microbiota consists of a set of microorganisms that colonizes the intestine and ferment fibers, among other nutrients, from the host’s diet. A healthy gut microbiota, colonized mainly by beneficial microorganisms, has a positive effect on digestion and plays a role in [...] Read more.
The gut microbiota consists of a set of microorganisms that colonizes the intestine and ferment fibers, among other nutrients, from the host’s diet. A healthy gut microbiota, colonized mainly by beneficial microorganisms, has a positive effect on digestion and plays a role in disease prevention. However, dysregulation of the gut microbiota can contribute to various diseases. The nutrition of the host plays an important role in determining the composition of the gut microbiota. A healthy diet, rich in fiber, can beneficially modulate the gut microbiota. In this sense, oats are a source of both soluble and insoluble fiber. Oats are considered a functional ingredient with prebiotic potential and contain plant proteins, unsaturated fats, and antioxidant compounds. The impact of oat consumption on the gut microbiota is still emerging. Associations between oat consumption and the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, Roseburia, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii have already been observed. Therefore, this integrative review summarizes the findings from studies on the relationship between oat consumption, the gut microbiota, and the metabolites, mainly short-chain fatty acids, it produces. Full article
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26 pages, 1458 KiB  
Review
Gut Microbial-Derived Short Chain Fatty Acids: Impact on Adipose Tissue Physiology
by Karolline S. May and Laura J. den Hartigh
Nutrients 2023, 15(2), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15020272 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4666
Abstract
Obesity is a global public health issue and major risk factor for pathological conditions, including type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, hepatic steatosis, and certain types of cancer. These metabolic complications result from a combination of genetics and environmental influences, thus contributing [...] Read more.
Obesity is a global public health issue and major risk factor for pathological conditions, including type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, hepatic steatosis, and certain types of cancer. These metabolic complications result from a combination of genetics and environmental influences, thus contributing to impact whole-body homeostasis. Mechanistic animal and human studies have indicated that an altered gut microbiota can mediate the development of obesity, leading to inflammation beyond the intestine. Moreover, prior research suggests an interaction between gut microbiota and peripheral organs such as adipose tissue via different signaling pathways; yet, to what degree and in exactly what ways this inter-organ crosstalk modulates obesity remains elusive. This review emphasizes the influence of circulating gut-derived short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) i.e., acetate, propionate, and butyrate, on adipose tissue metabolism in the scope of obesity, with an emphasis on adipocyte physiology in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we discuss some of the well-established mechanisms via which microbial SCFAs exert a role as a prominent host energy source, hence regulating overall energy balance and health. Collectively, exploring the mechanisms via which SCFAs impact adipose tissue metabolism appears to be a promising avenue to improve metabolic conditions related to obesity. Full article
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21 pages, 723 KiB  
Review
Microbiome Therapeutics for Food Allergy
by Diana A. Chernikova, Matthew Y. Zhao and Jonathan P. Jacobs
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5155; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235155 - 3 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4821
Abstract
The prevalence of food allergies continues to rise, and with limited existing therapeutic options there is a growing need for new and innovative treatments. Food allergies are, in a large part, related to environmental influences on immune tolerance in early life, and represent [...] Read more.
The prevalence of food allergies continues to rise, and with limited existing therapeutic options there is a growing need for new and innovative treatments. Food allergies are, in a large part, related to environmental influences on immune tolerance in early life, and represent a significant therapeutic challenge. An expanding body of evidence on molecular mechanisms in murine models and microbiome associations in humans have highlighted the critical role of gut dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of food allergies. As such, the gut microbiome is a rational target for novel strategies aimed at preventing and treating food allergies, and new methods of modifying the gastrointestinal microbiome to combat immune dysregulation represent promising avenues for translation to future clinical practice. In this review, we discuss the intersection between the gut microbiome and the development of food allergies, with particular focus on microbiome therapeutic strategies. These emerging microbiome approaches to food allergies are subject to continued investigation and include dietary interventions, pre- and probiotics, microbiota metabolism-based interventions, and targeted live biotherapeutics. This exciting frontier may reveal disease-modifying food allergy treatments, and deserves careful study through ongoing clinical trials. Full article
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