Special Issue "Diet Quality, Physical Activity, and Fitness in Young Populations"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Sports Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2020) | Viewed by 12554

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. MOVE-IT Research Group, Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Education Sciences University of Cádiz, Cádiz, Spain
2. Department of Health Sciences, Public University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
Interests: physical activity; physical fitness; brain health; obesity; nutrition
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Physical activity and physical fitness are amongst the most important factors for improving health in all populations. It is known that higher intensities of physical activity, such as moderate or vigorous physical activity, could be related to better diet quality. Furthermore, evidence suggests that physical fitness in childhood might also be positively related to diet quality. However, the information provided in this area is still scarce and more research is needed.

Therefore, this Special Issue “Diet Quality, Physical Activity, and Fitness in Young Populations” welcomes original research articles as well as reviews and meta-analyses in any subject area related to diet quality, physical activity, and physical fitness in young populations.

Dr. Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • diet quality
  • physical activity
  • physical fitness
  • youth

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Article
Association between Mediterranean Dietary Pattern and Breakfast Quality with Physical Fitness in School Children: The HIIT Project
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1353; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041353 - 18 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1112
Abstract
Dietary habits have been linked with health in childhood. However, few studies have examined the association between healthy dietary patterns and physical fitness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the associations of adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) and [...] Read more.
Dietary habits have been linked with health in childhood. However, few studies have examined the association between healthy dietary patterns and physical fitness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the associations of adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) and breakfast quality with physical fitness in children. Further to this, we examined the role of physical activity in these associations. A total of 175 children (86 girls, 9.7 ± 0.3 years) participated. Adherence to MDP and breakfast quality were assessed by the KIDMED questionnaire and 24 h recall, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, and speed–agility were assessed. Physical activity was evaluated by wrist-worn accelerometers. Greater adherence to the MDP was related with higher cardiorespiratory fitness, lower-limbs muscular strength, and speed–agility (all β ≥ 0.189, all p ≤ 0.02). No significant associations were observed between breakfast quality and physical fitness (all p > 0.05). However, all the significant associations disappeared after adjusting for physical activity (all p > 0.05). Our study sheds light on the relevance of adhering to the MDP over physical fitness in school children. However, there is no association between breakfast quality and physical fitness. Furthermore, physical activity seems to explain, at least partially, these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Quality, Physical Activity, and Fitness in Young Populations)
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Article
Mediterranean Diet, Screen-Time-Based Sedentary Behavior and Their Interaction Effect on Adiposity in European Adolescents: The HELENA Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020474 - 30 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2451
Abstract
Childhood obesity is a worldwide epidemic. Mediterranean diet (MD) is inversely associated with childhood obesity, but the interaction with other environmental factors, such screen time, might influence the health benefits of a high MD adherence in adolescents. The aim of the present study [...] Read more.
Childhood obesity is a worldwide epidemic. Mediterranean diet (MD) is inversely associated with childhood obesity, but the interaction with other environmental factors, such screen time, might influence the health benefits of a high MD adherence in adolescents. The aim of the present study was to assess whether an association between MD and screen time exists in European adolescents. Moreover, we also explored whether sedentary time has a modulatory effect on the association between MD and adiposity. Adherence to the MD (24 h recalls), screen time (questionnaire), pubertal development, body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI) and waist circumference (WC) were evaluated in 2053 adolescents (54.7% females), aged 12.5–17.5 years. In females, MD adherence was associated with lower BMI and FMI only when they were exposed to less than 338 min/day of screen time (81.8% of females); MD adherence was also associated with lower WC only when females were exposed to less than 143 min/day of screen time (31.5% of females). No significant MD-screen time interaction was observed in males. In conclusion, screen-time-based sedentary behaviours had a modulatory effect in the association between MD adherence and adiposity in European female adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Quality, Physical Activity, and Fitness in Young Populations)
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Article
Effects of School-Based Exercise and Nutrition Intervention on Body Composition and Physical Fitness in Overweight Adolescent Girls
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010238 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2414
Abstract
Regular exercise during school hours is encouraged since childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Moreover, a great majority of adolescents do not meet the recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The present study aimed to determine the effects of school-based high-intensity interval training (HIIT) [...] Read more.
Regular exercise during school hours is encouraged since childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Moreover, a great majority of adolescents do not meet the recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The present study aimed to determine the effects of school-based high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and nutrition intervention on body composition and physical fitness in overweight adolescent girls. Forty-eight girls were included in the study, of whom 24 (age = 15.5 ± 0.7 years) were randomized to a experimental group (EXP) (HIIT and nutrition intervention school-based program) and 24 (age = 15.7 ± 0.6 years) to a control group (CON) that maintained their usual physical education activities. HIIT consisted of 10 stations of own bodyweight exercise and was done three times per week for eight weeks. Moreover, the EXP participated in the nutrition program led by a nutritionist two times a week. Apart from body composition assessment, participants performed countermovement jump (CMJ), medicine ball throw, hand-grip test, and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 Test (YYIRT1). A significant effect of group (EXP vs. CON) x time (pre vs. post) interaction was observed for weight [F(1,44) = 7.733; p = 0.008], body mass index [F(1,44) = 5.764; p = 0.020], body fat (in kg) [F(1,44) = 17.850; p < 0.001], and body fat (in %) [F(1,44) = 18.821; p < 0.001]. Moreover, a significant interaction was observed for the medicine ball throw [F(1,44) = 27.016; p < 0.001] and YYIRT1 [F(1,44) = 5.439; p = 0.024]. A significant main effect for time was found for hand grip [F(1,44) = 9.300; p = 0.004] and CMJ [F(1,44) = 12.866; p = 0.001].The present study has demonstrated that just eight weeks school-based HIIT and nutrition intervention, including three sessions a week, can improve body composition and muscular and physical aerobic performance in overweighted adolescent girls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Quality, Physical Activity, and Fitness in Young Populations)
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Article
The EnergyKids Pilot Study: Comparing Energy Balance of Primary School Children during School and Summer Camp
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010092 - 30 Dec 2020
Viewed by 1093
Abstract
Children’s energy requirements may vary during school and summer camp days. To evaluate energy balance during these two periods, seventy-eight children (45% females, 8–10 years) living in Parma, Italy, were enrolled in this observational study. Participants completed a 3-day food diary and wore [...] Read more.
Children’s energy requirements may vary during school and summer camp days. To evaluate energy balance during these two periods, seventy-eight children (45% females, 8–10 years) living in Parma, Italy, were enrolled in this observational study. Participants completed a 3-day food diary and wore an activity tracker for three consecutive days during a school- and a summer camp-week to estimate energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (TEE). Height and body weight were measured at the beginning of each period to define children’s weight status. BMI and EI (school: 1692 ± 265 kcal/day; summer camp: 1738 ± 262 kcal/day) were similar during both periods. Both physical activity and TEE (summer camp: 1948 ± 312; school: 1704 ± 263 kcal/day) were higher during summer camp compared to school time. Therefore, energy balance was more negative during summer camp (−209 ± 366 kcal/day) compared to school time (−12 ± 331 kcal/day). Similar results were observed when males and females were analyzed separately but, comparing the sexes, males had a higher TEE and a more negative energy balance than females, during both periods. The results strongly suggest that an accurate evaluation of children’s energy balance, that considers both diet and physical activity, is needed when planning adequate diets for different situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Quality, Physical Activity, and Fitness in Young Populations)
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Article
Food Habits and Screen Time Play a Major Role in the Low Health Related to Quality of Life of Ethnic Ascendant Schoolchildren
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3489; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113489 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1311
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to determine the association between lifestyle parameters (i.e., physical activity (PA) level, screen time (ST), fitness and food habits) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in ethnic ascendant schoolchildren (i.e., Mapuche ascendant). This cross-sectional study included [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to determine the association between lifestyle parameters (i.e., physical activity (PA) level, screen time (ST), fitness and food habits) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in ethnic ascendant schoolchildren (i.e., Mapuche ascendant). This cross-sectional study included 619 schoolchildren with ethnic (EA; n = 234, 11.6 ± 1.0 years) and non-ethnicity ascendant (NEA; n = 383, 11.7 ± 1.1 years) from Araucanía, Chile. HRQoL and lifestyle were measured using a standard questionnaire and cardiometabolic markers (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WtHR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP)) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) were additionally included. In the EA schoolchildren, the HRQoL reported association with CRF adjusted by age and sex (β; 0.12, p = 0.018) and non-adjusted with foods habits (β; 0.11, p = 0.034). By contrast, ST adjusted by age and sex presented an inverse association with HRQoL (β; −2.70, p < 0.001). EA schoolchildren showed low HRQoL (p = 0.002), low nutritional level (p = 0.002) and low CRF (p < 0.001) than NEA peers. Moreover, children’s ethnic presence showed an association with low nutritional levels (odd ratio (OR): 3.28, p = 0.002) and ST 5 h/day (OR: 5.34, p = 0.003). In conclusion, in the present study, EA schoolchildren reported lower HRQoL than NEA schoolchildren, which could be explained by the lifestyle patterns such as a low nutritional level and more ST exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Quality, Physical Activity, and Fitness in Young Populations)
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Article
Impact of Physical Activity Practice and Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Relation to Multiple Intelligences among University Students
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2630; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092630 - 28 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1571
Abstract
Physical activity is important at any time of life. Particularly in the university, people tend to have more sedentary life, due to their studies. Eating habits are another health factor to consider. In addition, the Multiple Intelligences theory is a proposal that seeks [...] Read more.
Physical activity is important at any time of life. Particularly in the university, people tend to have more sedentary life, due to their studies. Eating habits are another health factor to consider. In addition, the Multiple Intelligences theory is a proposal that seeks the integral development and well-being of people. A descriptive, cross-sectional, and non-experimental research with the purpose of this study is to establish the relationships between practice of physical activity and the intelligences and determine the relationship between diet and the different types of intelligence in 215 university students. Findings indicate higher adherence to Mediterranean Diet in women and higher physical activity scores in men. Regarding multiple intelligences, men have higher indices in Bodily-kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Logical-mathematical, Musical, and Spatial intelligences, while women show higher levels in relation to Linguistic, Intrapersonal, and Naturalistic intelligences. Main conclusions from this study suggest the relationship between multiple intelligence and healthy habits, while also highlighting the need to improve eating habits and achieve greater adherence to Mediterranean Diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Quality, Physical Activity, and Fitness in Young Populations)
Article
Weight Status, Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet, and Physical Fitness in Spanish Children and Adolescents: The Active Health Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1680; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061680 - 04 Jun 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2012
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the differences in body composition and physical fitness according to the weight status (normoweight, overweight and obese) and the level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD; low, medium or high), in physically active children [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze the differences in body composition and physical fitness according to the weight status (normoweight, overweight and obese) and the level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD; low, medium or high), in physically active children and adolescents. Furthermore, this study also analyzed the relationship between body composition and physical fitness with Body Mass Index (BMI), fat mass and the level of adherence to the MD. In total, 1676 participants aged 6–17 from different municipal sports schools participated in this cross-sectional study. Data on adherence to the MD (a KIDMED questionnaire), anthropometric measurements, body composition and physical fitness parameters (the 20-m shuttle run test and muscular strength) were collected. A total of 43.5% of the sample were presented as overweight and obese, and only 35.7% had high or optimal adherence to the MD. The results revealed that a normoweight status was associated with greater cardiorespiratory fitness (p < 0.05; ES: 0.50 to 0.67) and lower-body muscular strength (p < 0.05; ES: 0.58 to 1.10). The overweight group showed more significant results than the other groups in handgrip strength (p < 0.01). Greater adherence to the MD in this population indicated better physical fitness, but only in boys. It is concluded that normoweight status and optimal adherence to the MD in children and adolescents are associated with health benefits, which are significant in the body composition and the effect on physical fitness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Quality, Physical Activity, and Fitness in Young Populations)
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