Special Issue "The Role of Diet in Menopause and Andropause"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Marcello Maggio
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Geratric Clinic Unit, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, 43126 Parma, Italy
Interests: endocrinology of aging; assessment and management of malnutrition; body composition; dysphagia; frailty
Prof. Maurizio Muscaritoli
E-Mail
Co-Guest Editor
Department of Translational and Precision Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Interests: nutritional assessment; body composition; frailty; sarcopenia

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Optimal body functioning and good health demand ideal body composition and distribution of tissues and organs. This homeostasis is required to support the physiological and biochemical processes underpinning a healthy trajectory of life. The energy required for maintaining body composition (BC) depends on the nutritional status. There is a bidirectional link between BC and the quantity and quality of energy intake. This relationship changes during transition menopause. The modified hormonal milieu in women, together with increasing age and lower energy expenditure, causes an important change in fat distribution, leading to central obesity, and insulin resistance. Recent longitudinal studies suggest that fat and lean mass increase prior to menopause transition (MT), and at the start of MT, the rate of fat gain doubles, and the lean mass declines; these gains and losses continue for two years after the final menstrual period (FMP). Changes in BC occur to a lesser extent in men. The decline in serum testosterone (T) levels is less profound than the cessation of estrogens in women and does not affect all men. A large cross-sectional survey showed that progressively lower total and free testosterone in older men were associated with increasing BMI, obesity, waist circumference (as a proxy of adiposity), and co-morbidities, independently of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels. In addition to the increase of intra-abdominal fat mass, the simultaneous reduction in skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength represents the main BC change associated with aging in men. However, it is not completely elucidated whether low T levels may increase the risk for developing visceral fat or the opposite, since this relationship may be bidirectional.

Thus, with advancing age, there are many alterations in the endocrine system, which may ultimately change human physiology and body composition both in women and in men, influencing the growth of muscle and bone and regulating the metabolism. Among the factors that can modulate hormone secretion, there are diet and exercise, two of the few known lifestyle-related features that can be modified. Although limited data exist about whether dietary modifications can affect fat distribution during menopausal transition, evidence suggests that continuous and regular exercise may be more efficacious than dietary intervention and that these two determinants act synergistically for the promotion of a healthy body composition profile, characterized by the preservation of lean mass and a significant decrease in body fat. However, the physiological effects of physical activity and exercise on glucoregulatory hormones in elderly subjects are relatively understudied, and further research is necessary to elucidate whether physical exercise together with diet can act as a countermeasure to endocrinological and body composition-related modifications occurring during the process of aging.

Prof. Maurizio Muscaritoli
Prof. Marcello Maggio
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Diet
  • Metabolic Syndrome
  • Physical Activity
  • Andropause
  • Menopause

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Review

Open AccessReview
Menopause-Associated Lipid Metabolic Disorders and Foods Beneficial for Postmenopausal Women
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010202 - 13 Jan 2020
Abstract
Menopause is clinically diagnosed as a condition when a woman has not menstruated for one year. During the menopausal transition period, there is an emergence of various lipid metabolic disorders due to hormonal changes, such as decreased levels of estrogens and increased levels [...] Read more.
Menopause is clinically diagnosed as a condition when a woman has not menstruated for one year. During the menopausal transition period, there is an emergence of various lipid metabolic disorders due to hormonal changes, such as decreased levels of estrogens and increased levels of circulating androgens; these may lead to the development of metabolic syndromes including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Dysregulation of lipid metabolism affects the body fat mass, fat-free mass, fatty acid metabolism, and various aspects of energy metabolism, such as basal metabolic ratio, adiposity, and obesity. Moreover, menopause is also associated with alterations in the levels of various lipids circulating in the blood, such as lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and triacylglycerol (TG). Alterations in lipid metabolism and excessive adipose tissue play a key role in the synthesis of excess fatty acids, adipocytokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and reactive oxygen species, which cause lipid peroxidation and result in the development of insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and dyslipidemia. This review discusses dietary recommendations and beneficial compounds, such as vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, phytochemicals—and their food sources—to aid the management of abnormal lipid metabolism in postmenopausal women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Diet in Menopause and Andropause)
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