Menopause is clinically diagnosed as a condition when a woman has not menstruated for one year. During the menopausal transition period, there is an emergence of various lipid metabolic disorders due to hormonal changes, such as decreased levels of estrogens and increased levels of circulating androgens; these may lead to the development of metabolic syndromes including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Dysregulation of lipid metabolism affects the body fat mass, fat-free mass, fatty acid metabolism, and various aspects of energy metabolism, such as basal metabolic ratio, adiposity, and obesity. Moreover, menopause is also associated with alterations in the levels of various lipids circulating in the blood, such as lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and triacylglycerol (TG). Alterations in lipid metabolism and excessive adipose tissue play a key role in the synthesis of excess fatty acids, adipocytokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and reactive oxygen species, which cause lipid peroxidation and result in the development of insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and dyslipidemia. This review discusses dietary recommendations and beneficial compounds, such as vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, phytochemicals—and their food sources—to aid the management of abnormal lipid metabolism in postmenopausal women.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited