Special Issue "Current Understanding of Nutritional Factors including Vitamin D and Melatonin Effects on Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Micronutrients and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Anna Brozyna
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Human Biology, Institute of Biology, Faculty of Biological and Veterinary Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 87-100 Toruń, Poland

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The recent years have provided new insights into the identification and characterization of new properties of nutritional factors, including vitamin D, melatonin, and their metabolites. Many studies have revealed new biological roles and health-related or clinical applications for these compounds. Recent advances have revised or identified new mechanisms of their action that involve defining specific receptors or regulatory proteins or organelles such as mitochondria mediating their phenotypic activity, and have established precise mechanisms of the metabolic activation and/or inactivation of these compounds. These advances define novel pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and cosmeceutical targets for improving health in the chemoprevention or treatment of different diseases.

The goal of this Special Issue titled “Current Understanding of Nutritional Factors Including Vitamin D and Melatonin Effects on Health” is to collect the latest research findings on a broad range of research topics concerning the effects of dietary factors on a variety of health aspects. We welcome original experimental research, review articles, and commentary articles leading to a better understanding of the biological actions of nutritional factors, their role in disease pathogenesis, and their potential roles in preventive healthcare and treatment.

Prof. Dr. Anna Brozyna
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamins
  • Melatonin
  • Health
  • Skin Diseases
  • Treatment
  • Preventive Healthcare
  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin E
  • Vitamin A

Published Papers (8 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Prepubertal Overweight and Obese Children
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1597; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051597 - 11 May 2021
Viewed by 665
Abstract
Childhood obesity has become a major global health problem. Vitamin D deficiency and poor cardiorespiratory fitness are highly prevalent in children with overweight or obesity, but little is known about their relationships. In this study, we aimed to analyze the relationship between serum [...] Read more.
Childhood obesity has become a major global health problem. Vitamin D deficiency and poor cardiorespiratory fitness are highly prevalent in children with overweight or obesity, but little is known about their relationships. In this study, we aimed to analyze the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and cardiorespiratory fitness parameters in prepubertal obese and overweight children. A cross-sectional design with a sample of 57 prepubertal children, aged 9–11 years, with overweight or obesity was used. The fasting concentration of 25(OH)D was analyzed with a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Fat and lean body masses were determined by using DXA. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was measured with the maximal treadmill test. A total of 68.4% of the sample had sufficient levels of 25(OH)D. As expected, their cardiorespiratory fitness was poor compared with that of normal-weight children, but 60% of the group exceeded the median obesity-specific reference values. No differences were found between the sexes for relative VO2max or 25(OH)D levels. Moreover, no correlations were found between 25(OH)D and body composition or cardiorespiratory parameters for sex or vitamin D groups. Vitamin D status seems not to be directly related to body composition or cardiorespiratory fitness in prepubertal overweight or obese children. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Vitamin D and Immunological Patterns of Allergic Diseases in Children
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010177 - 08 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1985
Abstract
Vitamin D, in addition to its superior role as a factor regulating calcium-phosphate metabolism, shows wide effects in other processes in the human body, including key functions of the immune system. This is due to the presence of vitamin D receptors in most [...] Read more.
Vitamin D, in addition to its superior role as a factor regulating calcium-phosphate metabolism, shows wide effects in other processes in the human body, including key functions of the immune system. This is due to the presence of vitamin D receptors in most cells of the human body. In our study, we aimed to assess whether there is a correlation between vitamin D content and the clinical course of allergic diseases as well as establish their immunological parameters in children. We found that vitamin D deficiency was significantly more frequent in the group of children with an allergic disease than in the control group (p = 0.007). Statistically significant higher vitamin D concentrations in blood were observed in the group of children with a mild course of the disease compared to children with a severe clinical course (p = 0.03). In the group of children with vitamin D deficiency, statistically significant lower percentages of NKT lymphocytes and T-regulatory lymphocytes were detected compared to the group of children without deficiency (respectively, p = 0.02 and p = 0.05), which highlights a potential weakness of the immune system in these patients. Furthermore, statistically higher levels of interleukin-22 were observed in the group of children with vitamin D deficiency (p = 0.01), suggesting a proinflammatory alert state. In conclusion, these results confirm the positive relationship between the optimal content of vitamin D and the lesser severity of allergic diseases in children, establishing weak points in the immune system caused by vitamin D deficiency in children. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Association among Vitamin D, Retinoic Acid-Related Orphan Receptors, and Vitamin D Hydroxyderivatives in Ovarian Cancer
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3541; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113541 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 934
Abstract
Vitamin D and its derivatives, acting via the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and retinoic acid-related orphan receptors γ and α (RORγ and RORα), show anticancer properties. Since pathological conditions are characterized by disturbances in the expression of these receptors, in this study, we [...] Read more.
Vitamin D and its derivatives, acting via the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and retinoic acid-related orphan receptors γ and α (RORγ and RORα), show anticancer properties. Since pathological conditions are characterized by disturbances in the expression of these receptors, in this study, we investigated their expression in ovarian cancers (OCs), as well as explored the phenotypic effects of vitamin D hydroxyderivatives and RORγ/α agonists on OC cells. The VDR and RORγ showed both a nuclear and a cytoplasmic location, and their expression levels were found to be reduced in the primary and metastatic OCs in comparison to normal ovarian epithelium, as well as correlated to the tumor grade. This reduction in VDR and RORγ expression correlated with a shorter overall disease-free survival. VDR, RORγ, and RORα were also detected in SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cell lines with increased expression in the latter line. 20-Hydroxy-lumisterol3 (20(OH)L3) and synthetic RORα/RORγ agonist SR1078 inhibited proliferation only in the OVCAR-3 line, while 20-hydroxyvitamin-D3 (20(OH)D3) only inhibited SKOV-3 cell proliferation. 1,25(OH)2D3, 20(OH)L3, and SR1078, but not 20(OH)D3, inhibited spheroid formation in SKOV-3 cells. In summary, decreases in VDR, RORγ, and RORα expression correlated with an unfavorable outcome for OC, and compounds targeting these receptors had a context-dependent anti-tumor activity in vitro. We conclude that VDR and RORγ expression can be used in the diagnosis and prognosis of OC and suggest their ligands as potential candidates for OC therapy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Effects of 6-Month Vitamin D Supplementation during the Non-Surgical Treatment of Periodontitis in Vitamin-D-Deficient Patients: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 2940; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12102940 - 25 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1087
Abstract
Background: This study assessed the effects of weekly vitamin D (VD) supplementation on clinical and biological parameters after scaling and root planning (SRP) in the treatment of periodontitis and served to validate the VD dosage regimen. Methods: It was a monocentric, randomized, double-blind, [...] Read more.
Background: This study assessed the effects of weekly vitamin D (VD) supplementation on clinical and biological parameters after scaling and root planning (SRP) in the treatment of periodontitis and served to validate the VD dosage regimen. Methods: It was a monocentric, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 6 months follow-up. Healthy Caucasian periodontitis patients presenting serum 25(OH) vitamin D3 below 30 ng/mL were randomly allocated to test group (SRP + VD 25,000 international units (IU)/week) or the control group (SRP + placebo). Results: A total of 59 patients were screened, 27 were included and 26 completed 3 months (M) and 21 completed 6M control. Test (n = 13) and control groups (n = 14) had similar 25(OH) vitamin D3 levels at baseline (17.6 ± 7.4 vs. 14.4 ± 5.2, respectively). After one month, there was a significant difference between groups (32.9 ± 5.2 vs. 16.1 ± 4.7), also seen at M3 and M6 (t-test, p < 0.001). Periodontal treatment was successful in both groups, since it resulted in a reduction of all measured clinical parameters at M3 and M6 (probing pocket depth (PPD), full mouth bleeding and plaque). However, the reduction in PPD was greater in the test group. Conclusions: In this short-term pilot study, no significant differences were observed between two groups. However, supplementation with VD tended to improve the treatment of periodontitis in patients with initial 25(OH) vitamin D3 < 30 ng/mL and proved safe and efficacious. NCT03162406. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Vitamin D: Current Challenges between the Laboratory and Clinical Practice
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 1758; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061758 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1024
Abstract
Vitamin D is a micronutrient with pleiotropic effects in humans. Due to sedentary lifestyles and increasing time spent indoors, a growing body of research is revealing that vitamin D deficiency is a global problem. Despite the routine measurement of vitamin D in clinical [...] Read more.
Vitamin D is a micronutrient with pleiotropic effects in humans. Due to sedentary lifestyles and increasing time spent indoors, a growing body of research is revealing that vitamin D deficiency is a global problem. Despite the routine measurement of vitamin D in clinical laboratories and many years of efforts, methods of vitamin D analysis have yet to be standardized and are burdened with significant difficulties. This review summarizes several key analytical and clinical challenges that accompany the current methods for measuring vitamin D. According to an external quality assessment, methods and laboratories still produce a high degree of variability. Structurally similar metabolites are a source of significant interference. Furthermore, there is still no consensus on the normal values of vitamin D in a healthy population. These and other problems discussed herein can be a source of inconsistency in the results of research studies. Full article
Review
Oral and Topical Vitamin D, Sunshine, and UVB Phototherapy Safely Control Psoriasis in Patients with Normal Pretreatment Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations: A Literature Review and Discussion of Health Implications
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1511; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13051511 - 29 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2395
Abstract
Vitamin D, sunshine and UVB phototherapy were first reported in the early 1900s to control psoriasis, cure rickets and cure tuberculosis (TB). Vitamin D also controlled asthma and rheumatoid arthritis with intakes ranging from 60,000 to 600,000 International Units (IU)/day. In the 1980s, [...] Read more.
Vitamin D, sunshine and UVB phototherapy were first reported in the early 1900s to control psoriasis, cure rickets and cure tuberculosis (TB). Vitamin D also controlled asthma and rheumatoid arthritis with intakes ranging from 60,000 to 600,000 International Units (IU)/day. In the 1980s, interest in treating psoriasis with vitamin D rekindled. Since 1985 four different oral forms of vitamin D (D2, D3, 1-hydroxyvitaminD3 (1(OH)D3) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitaminD3 (calcitriol)) and several topical formulations have been reported safe and effective treatments for psoriasis—as has UVB phototherapy and sunshine. In this review we show that many pre-treatment serum 25(OH)D concentrations fall within the current range of normal, while many post-treatment concentrations fall outside the upper limit of this normal (100 ng/mL). Yet, psoriasis patients showed significant clinical improvement without complications using these treatments. Current estimates of vitamin D sufficiency appear to underestimate serum 25(OH)D concentrations required for optimal health in psoriasis patients, while concentrations associated with adverse events appear to be much higher than current estimates of safe serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Based on these observations, the therapeutic index for vitamin D needs to be reexamined in the treatment of psoriasis and other diseases strongly linked to vitamin D deficiency, including COVID-19 infections, which may also improve safely with sufficient vitamin D intake or UVB exposure. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Vitamin C Transporters and Their Implications in Carcinogenesis
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3869; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123869 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1180
Abstract
Vitamin C is implicated in various bodily functions due to its unique properties in redox homeostasis. Moreover, vitamin C also plays a great role in restoring the activity of 2-oxoglutarate and Fe2+ dependent dioxygenases (2-OGDD), which are involved in active DNA demethylation [...] Read more.
Vitamin C is implicated in various bodily functions due to its unique properties in redox homeostasis. Moreover, vitamin C also plays a great role in restoring the activity of 2-oxoglutarate and Fe2+ dependent dioxygenases (2-OGDD), which are involved in active DNA demethylation (TET proteins), the demethylation of histones, and hypoxia processes. Therefore, vitamin C may be engaged in the regulation of gene expression or in a hypoxic state. Hence, vitamin C has acquired great interest for its plausible effects on cancer treatment. Since its conceptualization, the role of vitamin C in cancer therapy has been a controversial and disputed issue. Vitamin C is transferred to the cells with sodium dependent transporters (SVCTs) and glucose transporters (GLUT). However, it is unknown whether the impaired function of these transporters may lead to carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Notably, previous studies have identified SVCTs’ polymorphisms or their altered expression in some types of cancer. This review discusses the potential effects of vitamin C and the impaired SVCT function in cancers. The variations in vitamin C transporter genes may regulate the active transport of vitamin C, and therefore have an impact on cancer risk, but further studies are needed to thoroughly elucidate their involvement in cancer biology. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Clinical Trials for Use of Melatonin to Fight against COVID-19 Are Urgently Needed
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2561; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092561 - 24 Aug 2020
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 7585
Abstract
The recent pandemic of COVID-19 has already infected millions of individuals and has resulted in the death of hundreds of thousands worldwide. Based on clinical features, pathology, and the pathogenesis of respiratory disorders induced by this and other highly homogenous coronaviruses, the evidence [...] Read more.
The recent pandemic of COVID-19 has already infected millions of individuals and has resulted in the death of hundreds of thousands worldwide. Based on clinical features, pathology, and the pathogenesis of respiratory disorders induced by this and other highly homogenous coronaviruses, the evidence suggests that excessive inflammation, oxidation, and an exaggerated immune response contribute to COVID-19 pathology; these are caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This leads to a cytokine storm and subsequent progression triggering acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and often death. We and others have reported melatonin to be an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative molecule with a high safety profile. It is effective in critical care patients by reducing their vascular permeability and anxiety, inducing sedation, and improving their quality of sleep. As melatonin shows no harmful adverse effects in humans, it is imperative to introduce this indoleamine into clinical trials where it might be beneficial for better clinical outcomes as an adjuvant treatment of COVID-19-infected patients. Herein, we strongly encourage health care professionals to test the potential of melatonin for targeting the COVID-19 pandemic. This is urgent, since there is no reliable treatment for this devastating disease. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop