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Malnutrition and Sarcopenia in Older Adults

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Geriatric Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2024) | Viewed by 6623

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Nursing Science, Medical University of Graz, Neue Stiftingtalstraße 6, 8010 Graz, Austria
Interests: malnutrition; sarcopenia; sarcopenic obesity; dietetics; geriatrics; nursing; evidence-based practice

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Guest Editor
Institute of Nursing Science, Medical University of Graz, Neue Stiftingtalstraße 6, 8010 Graz, Austria
Interests: care dependency; nursing care quality; research implementation; pressure ulcer; malnutrition; ageing; dementia; evidence-based practice

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Co-Guest Editor
Institute of Nursing Science, Medical University of Graz, Neue Stiftingtalstraße 6, 8010 Graz, Austria
Interests: malnutrition; obesity; geriatrics; nursing care quality; instrument development and evaluation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Aging is accompanied by a variety of factors that increase the risk of malnutrition and sarcopenia, e.g., loss of sensory abilities, chewing and swallowing difficulties, loss of appetite, inflammation or decline of muscle mass, strength and function. Older adults often have several chronic co-morbidities which can result in polypharmacy and further increase the risk of malnutrition and sarcopenia. Malnutrition and sarcopenia overlap and many patients are affected by these conditions simultaneously. Both malnutrition and sarcopenia are associated with adverse outcomes, such as increased disability or reduced quality of life, which negatively affect the patient’s wellbeing but also the healthcare system due to higher healthcare costs. In clinical guidelines, a considerable amount of recommendations are based on expert consensus due to a lack of evidence. Therefore, further research is needed to further clarify the etiology of malnutrition and sarcopenia, identify causes and at-risk groups and develop and evaluate effective interventions for the population of older adults.

This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Malnutrition and Sarcopenia in Older Adults”, welcomes the submission of high-quality manuscripts describing either original research or systematic reviews and meta-analyses with humans. Studies on the evaluation of interventions for the prevention or treatment of malnutrition and sarcopenia in older adults (especially RCTs) are very welcome.

Dr. Doris Eglseer
Dr. Christa Lohrmann
Dr. Silvia Bauer
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • malnutrition
  • sarcopenia
  • older adults
  • aged
  • nutrition
  • diet
  • exercise
  • risk factors
  • interventions

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 431 KiB  
Article
Low-Protein Diet in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 4 and 5 in Conservative Management: Focus on Sarcopenia Development
by Francesca K. Martino, Alessandra Zattarin, Chiara Cinquini, Silvia Toniazzo, Francesco Francini Pesenti, Lucia Federica Stefanelli, Martina Cacciapuoti, Elisabetta Bettin, Lorenzo A. Calò and Paolo Spinella
Nutrients 2024, 16(10), 1498; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16101498 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 566
Abstract
Introduction: Chronic kidney disease is a degenerative and increasingly prevalent condition that includes metabolic abnormalities and is associated with a higher risk of sarcopenia. The conservative approach points primarily to controlling metabolic issues and reducing the risk of malnutrition and sarcopenia, slowing the [...] Read more.
Introduction: Chronic kidney disease is a degenerative and increasingly prevalent condition that includes metabolic abnormalities and is associated with a higher risk of sarcopenia. The conservative approach points primarily to controlling metabolic issues and reducing the risk of malnutrition and sarcopenia, slowing the progression of kidney disease. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of a low-protein diet on malnutrition and sarcopenia. Methods: A total of 45 patients (33 male and 12 female) aged over 70 with chronic kidney disease stage 4–5 in conservative management were considered. All patients had a dietary assessment and prescription of personalized low-protein dietary plans (≤0.6 g protein/kg) and a follow-up control between 4 and 6 months. In preliminary and follow-up evaluations, anthropometric data, blood examinations, body composition results, muscle strength, physical performance, and a 3-day food diary were collected. Results: In the follow-up period, a significant weight loss (p = 0.001) and a decrease in body mass index (p = 0.002) were recorded. Food diaries revealed a significant reduction in protein, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus intake (p < 0.001), with a significant reduction in urea (p < 0.001) and proteinuria (p = 0.01) without any impact on lean mass (p = 0.66). Considerable variations in adherence between food diaries and the prescribed diet were also noted. Conclusions: Providing a personalized low-protein diet led to significant benefits in a short period without worsening the patient’s nutritional status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Malnutrition and Sarcopenia in Older Adults)
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10 pages, 214 KiB  
Article
The Knowledge of Malnutrition—Geriatric (KoM-G) 2.0 Questionnaire for Health Care Institutions: Cross-Cultural Adaptation into German, Czech, Dutch and Turkish
by Silvia Bauer, Jan Pospichal, Viviënne Huppertz, Vit Blanar, Bulent Saka and Doris Eglseer
Nutrients 2024, 16(9), 1374; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16091374 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 568
Abstract
It is necessary for nursing staff to have adequate knowledge of malnutrition in older people in order to provide high quality care. This study was conducted to update the Knowledge of Malnutrition—Geriatric (KoM-G) questionnaire to fit different settings and to cross-culturally adapt it [...] Read more.
It is necessary for nursing staff to have adequate knowledge of malnutrition in older people in order to provide high quality care. This study was conducted to update the Knowledge of Malnutrition—Geriatric (KoM-G) questionnaire to fit different settings and to cross-culturally adapt it to the German, Czech, Dutch and Turkish languages. In Part 1 of the study, the KoM-G questionnaire was updated and adapted for use in different settings. Content validation of the KoM-G 2.0 was carried out in a Delphi study with 16 experts. The final KoM-G 2.0 questionnaire consists of 16 items with a Scale Content Validity Index/Average of 94.5%. In Part 2, the English KoM-G 2.0 was cross-culturally adapted into the German, Czech, Dutch and Turkish languages. In the pilot test, between 96.9% (The Netherlands) and 97.8% (Austria) of the nursing staff rated the items as understandable. The KoM-G 2.0 is an up-to-date questionnaire with a highly satisfactory Content Validity Index. It was cross-culturally adapted into the German, Czech, Dutch, and Turkish languages, and the understandability was high. At the moment, the necessary comprehensive psychometric testing of the KoM-G 2.0 is in process. Afterwards it can be used to compare nurses’ knowledge between various countries and settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Malnutrition and Sarcopenia in Older Adults)
11 pages, 819 KiB  
Article
Assessing Muscle Mass in the Orthopedic Clinical Setting: Application of the Ultrasound Sarcopenia Index in Elderly Subjects with a Recent Femoral Fracture
by Luca Di Lenarda, Alex Buoite Stella, Chiara Ratti, Luca Ruggiero, Monica Bernard, Luisa Priscamaria Cavarzerani, Gianluca Canton and Luigi Murena
Nutrients 2024, 16(5), 711; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16050711 - 29 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1349
Abstract
Background: Sarcopenia poses a risk factor for falls, disability, mortality, and unfavorable postoperative outcomes. Recently, the Ultrasound Sarcopenia Index (USI) has been validated to assess muscle mass, and this study aimed to apply the USI in the clinical setting. Methods: This prospective observational [...] Read more.
Background: Sarcopenia poses a risk factor for falls, disability, mortality, and unfavorable postoperative outcomes. Recently, the Ultrasound Sarcopenia Index (USI) has been validated to assess muscle mass, and this study aimed to apply the USI in the clinical setting. Methods: This prospective observational study included 108 patients aged >65 years, hospitalized for proximal femoral traumatic fracture. Patients were divided into two groups based on anamnestic data: patients with independent walking (IW) and patients requiring walking aid (WA) before admission. All the participants received an ultrasound examination. Other parameters evaluated were handgrip strength, limb circumferences, nutrition (MNA), and activity of daily living (ADL) scores. Results: Fifty-six IW patients (83 ± 6 y; 38 females) and 52 WA patients (87 ± 7 y; 44 females) were recruited. The USI was significantly higher in the IW group compared to the WA group (p = 0.013, Cohen’s d = 0.489). Significant correlations were found between the USI and other sarcopenia-associated parameters, such as handgrip strength, MNA, ADLs, other muscle ultrasound parameters, and limb circumferences. Conclusion: The application of the USI in the orthopedic surgery setting is feasible and might support the diagnosis of sarcopenia when combined with other measures of strength and function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Malnutrition and Sarcopenia in Older Adults)
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12 pages, 274 KiB  
Article
Cross-Sectional Study on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Sarcopenia in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Receiving Conservative Treatment
by Hiroyuki Inoshita, Daisuke Asaoka, Kei Matsuno, Naotake Yanagisawa, Yusuke Suzuki and Katsumi Miyauchi
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 4994; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15234994 - 1 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1596
Abstract
Sarcopenia is a poor prognostic factor in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Adequate dietary patterns are important for preventing sarcopenia; however, evidence regarding the underlying association between sarcopenia and diet is insufficient. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the association [...] Read more.
Sarcopenia is a poor prognostic factor in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Adequate dietary patterns are important for preventing sarcopenia; however, evidence regarding the underlying association between sarcopenia and diet is insufficient. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the association between sarcopenia and dietary patterns in CKD patients receiving conservative treatment. In this cross-sectional study, 441 patients with conservative CKD were examined using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia diagnostic criteria. CKD was defined as an eGFR of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 present for >3 months. The participants were divided into sarcopenia and non-sarcopenia groups, and dietary patterns were compared between the two groups using the dietary variety score, a simple dietary survey method that investigates the weekly frequency of consumption of 10 food groups. Logistic regression analysis for CKD G3 showed that female sex (odds ratio (OR): 0.166, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.086–0.320), increased body mass index (OR: 0.663, 95% CI: 0.590–0.745), and almost daily consumption of green/yellow vegetables (OR: 0.350, 95% CI: 0.176–0.695) were positively associated with non-sarcopenia. Although further prospective studies are required, the results suggest that low frequent consumption of vegetables is associated with sarcopenia in patients with CKD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Malnutrition and Sarcopenia in Older Adults)

Review

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15 pages, 960 KiB  
Review
Factors Associated with Sarcopenia among Elderly Individuals Residing in Community and Nursing Home Settings: A Systematic Review with a Meta-Analysis
by Jia Liu, Yuezhi Zhu, Jen Kit Tan, Azera Hasra Ismail, Roszita Ibrahim and Nor Haty Hassan
Nutrients 2023, 15(20), 4335; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15204335 - 11 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2089
Abstract
To investigate the factors associated with sarcopenia in elderly individuals residing in nursing homes and community settings, we conducted a systematic search of databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane, up to May 2023. We incorporated a total of 70 [...] Read more.
To investigate the factors associated with sarcopenia in elderly individuals residing in nursing homes and community settings, we conducted a systematic search of databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane, up to May 2023. We incorporated a total of 70 studies into our analysis. Our findings revealed that the prevalence of sarcopenia in nursing homes ranged from 25% to 73.7%, while in community settings, it varied from 5.2% to 62.7%. The factors associated with sarcopenia in both nursing homes and community settings included male gender, BMI, malnutrition, and osteoarthritis. In community settings, these factors comprised age, poor nutrition status, small calf circumference, smoking, physical inactivity, cognitive impairment, diabetes, depression and heart disease. Currently, both the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) and the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) standards are widely utilized in nursing homes and community settings, with the EWGSOP standard being more applicable to nursing homes. Identifying factors associated with sarcopenia is of paramount significance, particularly considering that some of them can be modified and managed. Further research is warranted to investigate the impact of preventive measures on these factors in the management of sarcopenia among elderly individuals residing in nursing homes and community settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Malnutrition and Sarcopenia in Older Adults)
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