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Special Issue "Dietary Antioxidants and Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 May 2019)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Esther Molina-Montes

1. Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Center (CNIO), Melchor Fernández Almagro, 28029 Madrid, Spain
2. CIBER Cáncer, CIBERONC, Madrid, Spain
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Interests: cancer preventive effects of diet, antioxidants and naturally occurring anticarcinogens, exploring plausible mechanistic links with environmental factors and gen*environmental interactions
Guest Editor
Dr. Pilar Amiano

1. Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa, Biodonostia Research Institute, Health Department of Basque Country, San Sebastian, Spain
2. CIBER Epidemiología y salud Pública, CIBERESP, Madrid, Spain
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Interests: cancer preventive effects of diet; dietary indexes; biomarkers; observational studies

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The potential beneficial effects that antioxidants have in the prevention of chronic diseases have been studied in depth over the last few decades. Their potential mechanisms of action involve the neutralizing effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) when there is imbalance because the endogenous antioxidant system cannot respond to the oxidant load in cells. Due to the resulting unfavorable antioxidant status that causes damage at different molecular levels, the risk of developing diseases is exacerbated. Some risk groups include smokers, some forms of stress and diseases, and inflammation. An important dietary source of antioxidant nutrients is the intake of fruit and vegetables, which are components included in every healthy dietary guideline, including the Mediterranean dietary pattern. However, whether fruits and vegetables alone or whether other dietary or lifestyle factors contribute together to a presumable lower risk of developing chronic diseases is still unclear.

This Special Issue examines the health effects of dietary antioxidants on human health considering antioxidant functions and metabolic aspects, anti and pro-oxidant nutrients in the diet and interactions thereof, the antioxidant potential of dietary patters, nutrient antioxidants and overall antioxidant capacity, and the contribution of dietary patterns and lifestyle factors to the body´s oxidative balance.

Dr. Esther Molina-Montes
Dr. Pilar Amiano
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Antioxidant nutrients and foods
  • Dietary indexes
  • Oxidative stress
  • Biomarkers
  • Risk assessment
  • Disease prevention

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Association between Adherence to the Antioxidant-Rich Mediterranean Diet and Sensory Processing Profile in School-Aged Children: The Spanish Cross-Sectional InProS Project
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051007
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 25 April 2019 / Accepted: 1 May 2019 / Published: 2 May 2019
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Abstract
We assessed the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) and sensory processing in 583 Spanish children aged 3–7 years from the InProS project in Alicante, Spain. Child sensory processing was measured using the short sensory profile (SSP); atypical sensory performance was [...] Read more.
We assessed the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) and sensory processing in 583 Spanish children aged 3–7 years from the InProS project in Alicante, Spain. Child sensory processing was measured using the short sensory profile (SSP); atypical sensory performance was defined as SSP total score <155; tactile sensitivity <30; taste/smell sensitivity <15; movement sensitivity <13; under-responsive/seeks sensation <27; auditory filtering <23; low energy/weak <26; and visual/auditory sensitivity <19 scores. Adherence to the MD was measured using the Mediterranean diet quality index KIDMED. Multiple Poisson regression models with robust variance, based on the Huber sandwich estimate, were used to obtain prevalence ratios (PR). Our findings suggested that a lower prevalence of atypical tactile and taste/smell sensitivity were associated with having medium (PR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.25; 0.99; PR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.33; 0.99, respectively) and high adherence to the MD (PR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34; 0.99; PR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.19; 0.60, respectively), and of atypical low energy/weak with having medium adherence to the MD (PR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16; 0.83). A two-point increase in adherence to the MD showed a general positive effect against atypical sensory performance, although it was statistically significant on taste/smell sensitivity (PR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.59; 0.85) and low energy/weak (PR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.64; 0.99) subscales. To our knowledge, this is the first study that shows a protective effect of adherence to the MD against prevalence of atypical sensory processing in school-aged children. Further research from longitudinal studies is required to confirm these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle
Supplementation with Hydroxytyrosol and Punicalagin Improves Early Atherosclerosis Markers Involved in the Asymptomatic Phase of Atherosclerosis in the Adult Population: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030640
Received: 1 March 2019 / Revised: 9 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 16 March 2019
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Abstract
Hydroxytyrosol (HT) and Punicalagin (PC) exert cardioprotective and anti-atherosclerotic effects. This study evaluates the effect of oral supplementation with HT and PC (SAx) on early atherosclerosis markers in middle-aged, seemingly healthy adults. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial was performed for 20 weeks. [...] Read more.
Hydroxytyrosol (HT) and Punicalagin (PC) exert cardioprotective and anti-atherosclerotic effects. This study evaluates the effect of oral supplementation with HT and PC (SAx) on early atherosclerosis markers in middle-aged, seemingly healthy adults. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial was performed for 20 weeks. There were two treatment sequences (Placebo/SAx, n = 41; SAx/Placebo, n = 43) for which the intervention periods (Placebo and SAx) were 8 weeks long, followed by a 4-week wash out period. The supplement was composed of 9.9 mg of HT and 195 mg of PC, and the placebo was composed of maltodextrin. SAx increased endothelial function (Flow-mediated dilatation [FMD]: 2.36%; p < 0.001) in the endothelial dysfunction subgroup compared to the placebo (2.36 ± 3.9 vs. 0.76 ± 3.5%, p < 0.05). SAx also reduced oxLDL by −28.74 ng/mL (p < 0.05) in subjects with higher levels of oxLDL, which was an improvement compared with the placebo (−28.74 ± 40.2 vs. 25.64 ± 93.8 ng/mL, p < 0.001). The prehypertension and hypertension subgroups exhibited decreased systolic (−15.75 ± 9.9 mmHg; p < 0.001) and diastolic (−6.36 ± 8.7 mmHg; p < 0.001) blood pressure after SAx consumption. Moreover, the systolic prehypertension and hypertension subgroups presented significant differences in systolic blood pressure compared to the placebo (−15.75 ± 9.9 vs. −2.67 ± 12.0 mmHg, p < 0.05). In conclusion, the supplement exerted anti-atherosclerotic effects by improving endothelial function, blood pressure, and levels of circulating oxLDL, especially for persons in whom these parameters were altered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Virgin Olive Oils Differing in Their Bioactive Compound Contents on Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030561
Received: 10 January 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
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Abstract
A regular consumption of virgin olive oil (VOO) is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to assess whether the raw intake of an optimized VOO (OVOO, 490 ppm of phenolic compounds and 86 ppm of triterpenes), and a functional [...] Read more.
A regular consumption of virgin olive oil (VOO) is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to assess whether the raw intake of an optimized VOO (OVOO, 490 ppm of phenolic compounds and 86 ppm of triterpenes), and a functional olive oil (FOO, 487 ppm of phenolic compounds and enriched with 389 ppm of triterpenes) supplementation (30 mL per day) during three weeks would provide additional health benefits to those produced by a standard VOO (124 ppm of phenolic compounds and 86 ppm of triterpenes) on oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers. Fifty-one healthy adults participated in a randomized, crossover, and controlled study. Urinary 8-hidroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, plasma interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF- α) concentrations were lower after the intervention with the FOO than after the OVOO (p = 0.033, p = 0.011 and p = 0.020, respectively). In addition, IL-8 was lower after the intervention with FOO than after VOO intervention (p = 0.002). This study provides a first level of evidence on the in vivo health benefits of olive oil triterpenes (oleanolic and maslinic acids) in healthy humans, decreasing DNA oxidation and plasma inflammatory biomarkers. The trial was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02520739. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Human Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
A Review of A Priori Defined Oxidative Balance Scores Relative to Their Components and Impact on Health Outcomes
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 774; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040774
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 3 April 2019
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Abstract
Oxidative Balance Scores (OBSs) are tools that have emerged to evaluate the global balance of individuals’ oxidation—reduction status. The aim was to compare OBSs available in the literature regarding their characteristics and associations with chronic diseases in epidemiological studies. Studies that developed OBSs [...] Read more.
Oxidative Balance Scores (OBSs) are tools that have emerged to evaluate the global balance of individuals’ oxidation—reduction status. The aim was to compare OBSs available in the literature regarding their characteristics and associations with chronic diseases in epidemiological studies. Studies that developed OBSs were searched in PubMed until August 2018. A total of 21 OBSs were identified. These OBSs presented different scoring schemes and different types of anti- and pro-oxidant components, including dietary factors (dietary intake and/or nutrient biomarkers), lifestyle factors, and medications. Most OBSs were based on over 10 components, and some included only dietary factors. Few considered weighted components in the score. Only three OBSs were validated as potential surrogates of oxidative balance through inflammation and OS-related biomarkers. Notably, all the OBSs were associated—to a varying degree—with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney disease, colorectal adenomas, and different cancer types (colorectal and breast cancer), as well as with all-cause and cancer-related mortality. For other outcomes, e.g., prostate cancer, contradictory results were reported. In summary, there is a great heterogeneity in the definition of OBSs. Most studies are concordant in supporting that excessive OS reflected by a lower OBS has deleterious effects on health. Unified criteria for defining the proper OBSs, valuable to gauge OS-related aspects of the diet and lifestyle that may lead to adverse health outcomes, are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Human Health)
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