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Special Issue "Diet, Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health in Vulnerable Populations"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Paula Skidmore

University of Otago, Department of Human Nutrition, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
Website | E-Mail
Interests: dietary patterns; chronic disease; children; adolescents; Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Cardiometabolic Health
Guest Editor
Dr. Katherine Black

University of Otago, Department of Human Nutrition, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nutrition; physical fitness
Guest Editor
Dr. Lee Stoner

University of North Carolina, Department of Exercise & Sport Science, 306 Woollen Gym, CB# 8605, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: lifestyle; cardiometabolic health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the biggest public health burdens worldwide. While CVD usually occurs in middle age, increasing evidence shows that the pathophysiological processes underlying CVD, such as changes to functional and structural characteristics of arteries begin during the first decade of life. It is known that certain vulnerable groups, such as ethnic minority groups, low socio-economic status, and children have different CVD trajectories. These different risk trajectories are associated with factors at the individual, social and environmental level. In particular, these individual, social and environmental factors impact lifestyle behaviors, including diet, physical activity and sedentary behavior.

This Special Issue aims to include original research and up-to-date reviews on the role of diet and other lifestyle factors in cardiometabolic health in populations vulnerable to developing CVD.

Dr. Paula Skidmore
Dr. Katherine Black
Dr. Lee Stoner
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • diet
  • food choice
  • lifestyle
  • cardio-metabolic health

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Cardiovascular Health, Adiposity, and Food Insecurity in an Underserved Population
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061376 (registering DOI)
Received: 25 April 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
PDF Full-text (854 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study investigated associations between cardiovascular health (CVH), adiposity, and food insecurity by race, sex, and health literacy in a sample of 800 underserved patients with obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2). CVH was assessed using American Heart Association [...] Read more.
This study investigated associations between cardiovascular health (CVH), adiposity, and food insecurity by race, sex, and health literacy in a sample of 800 underserved patients with obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m2). CVH was assessed using American Heart Association Life’s Simple 7 (LS7) and adiposity was estimated using BMI and waist circumference (WC). Mixed models including interaction terms between food insecurity and sex, race, and health literacy were analyzed for LS7, BMI, and WC. Stratified models were analyzed as indicated by significant interactions. Mean BMI and WC were 37.3 kg/m2 (4.6 SD) and 113.5 cm (12.4 SD), respectively. Among patients, 31% were food insecure and 31% had low health literacy. There were significant positive associations between food insecurity and BMI (p = 0.03) and WC (p = 0.03) in the overall sample. In sex-stratified models, women who were food insecure had higher BMI (p = 0.02) and WC (p = 0.007) than their food secure counterparts. Further, food insecure patients with better health literacy had greater BMI (p = 0.004) and WC (p = 0.007) than their food secure counterparts. Results suggest that adiposity is a greater burden in food insecure patients, which may be an important consideration for obesity treatment in underserved populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health in Vulnerable Populations)
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Open AccessArticle
Associations between Macronutrient Intakes and Obesity/Metabolic Risk Phenotypes: Findings of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030628
Received: 11 February 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
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Abstract
Obesity is a risk factor for many health issues, as are metabolic abnormalities. However, few studies have addressed the associations between obesity/metabolic risk phenotypes and dietary macronutrient intakes (carbohydrate, protein, and fat). Therefore, this study examined the associations between macronutrient intakes and obesity/metabolic [...] Read more.
Obesity is a risk factor for many health issues, as are metabolic abnormalities. However, few studies have addressed the associations between obesity/metabolic risk phenotypes and dietary macronutrient intakes (carbohydrate, protein, and fat). Therefore, this study examined the associations between macronutrient intakes and obesity/metabolic risk phenotypes in a Korean population. We used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey of Korean civilians, conducted in 2014 and 2016, and data on a total of 7374 participants were analyzed. Macronutrient intakes were defined as the proportions of energy derived from carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Those exhibiting obesity/metabolic risk phenotypes (or not) were divided into four groups: normal weight without metabolic abnormalities; obese without metabolic abnormalities; normal weight with metabolic abnormalities; and obese with metabolic abnormalities. After adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, extent of physical activity, household income, and daily fiber intake, no association was found between the proportions of carbohydrate, protein, or fat intakes and obesity/metabolic risk phenotypes except for a positive association between metabolically healthy but obese status and low protein intake in females. Further studies are required to evaluate the effects of macronutrient intakes on obesity/metabolic risk phenotypes and associated health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health in Vulnerable Populations)
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Open AccessArticle
Thromboxane-Dependent Platelet Activation in Obese Subjects with Prediabetes or Early Type 2 Diabetes: Effects of Liraglutide- or Lifestyle Changes-Induced Weight Loss
Nutrients 2018, 10(12), 1872; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121872
Received: 2 November 2018 / Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 2 December 2018
PDF Full-text (933 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thromboxane (TX)-dependent platelet activation and lipid peroxidation, as reflected in vivo by the urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-TXB2 and 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG)F, play a key role in atherothrombosis in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) since the earlier stages. Thirty-five metformin-treated [...] Read more.
Thromboxane (TX)-dependent platelet activation and lipid peroxidation, as reflected in vivo by the urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-TXB2 and 8-iso-prostaglandin (PG)F, play a key role in atherothrombosis in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) since the earlier stages. Thirty-five metformin-treated obese subjects with prediabetes or newly-diagnosed T2DM were randomized to the glucagon-like peptide receptor agonist (GLP-RA) liraglutide (1.8 mg/day) or lifestyle counseling until achieving a comparable weight loss (−7% of initial body weight), to assess whether changes in subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue distribution (MRI), insulin sensitivity (Matsuda Index) and beta-cell performance (multiple sampling OGTT beta-index), with either intervention, might affect TX-dependent platelet activation, lipid peroxidation and inflammation. At baseline, Ln-8-iso-PGF (Beta = 0.31, p = 0.0088), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (Beta = 2.64, p = 0.0011) Ln-TNF-α (Beta = 0.58, p = 0.0075) and SAT (Beta = 0.14, p = 0.044) were significant independent predictors of 11-dehydro-TXB2. After achievement of the weight loss target, a comparable reduction in U-11-dehydro-TXB2 (between-group p = 0.679) and 8-iso-PGF- (p = 0.985) was observed in both arms in parallel with a comparable improvement in glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, SAT, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). In obese patients with initial impairment of glucose metabolism, the extent of platelet activation is related to systemic inflammation, isoprostane formation and degree of glycemic control and abdominal SAT. Successful weight loss, achieved with either lifestyle changes or an incretin-based therapy, is associated with a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation and platelet activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health in Vulnerable Populations)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Sleep Duration and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness Are Associated with Obesity Independent of Diet and Physical Activity
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1219; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091219
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (552 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the European Union, Czech Republic ranks 3rd and 6th for the incidence of obesity and cardiovascular diseases, respectively. Worldwide, short sleep duration and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) characterize obese subjects, which in turn exhibit scarce physical activity and unhealthy diet. We aimed [...] Read more.
In the European Union, Czech Republic ranks 3rd and 6th for the incidence of obesity and cardiovascular diseases, respectively. Worldwide, short sleep duration and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) characterize obese subjects, which in turn exhibit scarce physical activity and unhealthy diet. We aimed to understand the relationship between irregular sleep patterns, obesity and lifestyle factors, such as diet and physical activity, in a vulnerable Czech population. 1482 members of the Kardiovize cohort, a random sample of the Czech urban population, were included in a cross-sectional study. Exposure variables included self-reported sleep duration and EDS, assessed by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Primary outcomes were BMI and waist-to-hip ratio or prevalence of obesity and central obesity. Covariates included physical activity and diet. Associations and interactions between variables were evaluated using logistic regression analyses. After adjustment for covariates, short sleep duration (<7 h) was associated with greater odds of overweight (BMI > 25; OR = 1.42; 95%CI = 1.06–1.90; p = 0.020) and obesity (BMI > 30; OR = 1.40; 95%CI = 1.02–1.94; p = 0.047), while EDS was associated with greater odds of central obesity (OR = 1.72; 95%CI = 1.06–2.79; p = 0.030), independent of diet and physical activity. However, due to the cross-sectional nature of our study, further prospective, large-scale studies are needed to evaluate the etiological link and causality between sleep disturbances and obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health in Vulnerable Populations)
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Patterns, Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness in 9–11-Year-Old Children from Dunedin, New Zealand
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 887; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070887
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Research shows that cardiorespiratory (CRF) and muscular fitness in childhood are associated with a healthier cardiovascular profile in adulthood. Identifying factors associated with measures of fitness in childhood could allow for strategies to optimize cardiovascular health throughout the lifecourse. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Research shows that cardiorespiratory (CRF) and muscular fitness in childhood are associated with a healthier cardiovascular profile in adulthood. Identifying factors associated with measures of fitness in childhood could allow for strategies to optimize cardiovascular health throughout the lifecourse. The aim of this study was to examine the association between dietary patterns and both CRF and muscular fitness in 9–11-year-olds. In this study of 398 children, CRF and muscular fitness were assessed using a 20-m shuttle run test and digital hand dynamometer, respectively. Dietary patterns were derived using principal component analysis. Mixed effects linear regression models were used to assess associations between dietary patterns and CRF and muscular fitness. Most children had healthy CRF (99%, FITNESSGRAM) and mean ± SD muscular fitness was 15.2 ± 3.3 kg. Two dietary patterns were identified; “Snacks” and “Fruit and Vegetables”. There were no significant associations between either of the dietary patterns and CRF. Statistically significant but not clinically meaningful associations were seen between dietary patterns and muscular fitness. In an almost exclusively fit cohort, food choice is not meaningfully related to measures of fitness. Further research to investigate diet-fitness relationships in children with lower fitness levels can identify key populations for potential investments in health-promoting behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health in Vulnerable Populations)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Dr Paula Skidmore

Aff: University of Otago, New Zealand.

Topic: Parental nutrirtion and other factors associated with the cardiometabolic health of their child.

2. Dr Lee Stoner

Aff: University of North Carolina, USA.

Topic: Does PROP status mediate the relationship between dietary patterns and obesity in children?

3. Dr Anna Kucharska-Newton

Aff: University of North Carolina, USA.

Topic: The relationship between milk intake and mitochondrial DNA in the ARIC study
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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