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Associations between Macronutrient Intakes and Obesity/Metabolic Risk Phenotypes: Findings of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Department of Family Medicine, St. Vincent’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea
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Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 628; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030628
Received: 11 February 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health in Vulnerable Populations)
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Abstract

Obesity is a risk factor for many health issues, as are metabolic abnormalities. However, few studies have addressed the associations between obesity/metabolic risk phenotypes and dietary macronutrient intakes (carbohydrate, protein, and fat). Therefore, this study examined the associations between macronutrient intakes and obesity/metabolic risk phenotypes in a Korean population. We used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey of Korean civilians, conducted in 2014 and 2016, and data on a total of 7374 participants were analyzed. Macronutrient intakes were defined as the proportions of energy derived from carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Those exhibiting obesity/metabolic risk phenotypes (or not) were divided into four groups: normal weight without metabolic abnormalities; obese without metabolic abnormalities; normal weight with metabolic abnormalities; and obese with metabolic abnormalities. After adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, extent of physical activity, household income, and daily fiber intake, no association was found between the proportions of carbohydrate, protein, or fat intakes and obesity/metabolic risk phenotypes except for a positive association between metabolically healthy but obese status and low protein intake in females. Further studies are required to evaluate the effects of macronutrient intakes on obesity/metabolic risk phenotypes and associated health outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary carbohydrates; dietary proteins; dietary fats; metabolic syndrome; obesity dietary carbohydrates; dietary proteins; dietary fats; metabolic syndrome; obesity
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Kim, H.-N.; Song, S.-W. Associations between Macronutrient Intakes and Obesity/Metabolic Risk Phenotypes: Findings of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Nutrients 2019, 11, 628.

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