Special Issue "Synthesis, Properties and Application of Novel Nanostructured Biomaterials"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Biology and Medicines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Dipak K. Sarker
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences, The University of Brighton, Moulsecoomb Science Campus, Lewes Road, Brighton, BN2 4GJ, UK
Interests: soft matter physics; nanotechnology; materials science; drug delivery science; food technology and chemical engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biomaterials that are natural, naturally-derived or chemically-modified represent a class of compounds that are both unique as source of substrates and present themselves as an adaptable platform substance for functional and structural improvement. The array of compounds is limited only by the imagination as the pool of natural and available materials is vast. Substrates range in diversity from biosurfactant lipids and crosslinked-polysaccharides to metallo-proteins and bio-organosilicates or apatites, and calcium carbonate-based aragonite. The applications of these compounds can range from nano-sized and coarse dispersion carriers for therapeutics, direct functional agents, and tissue replacement or bio-integrated implants, to functional biosensors, as in the case of photo-sensitisers, enzymes, and cell redox agents. The surface patterning and association of nanostructured biomaterial (NB) components can provide an array of different shapes, forms, and opportunities for constructs facilitating active-agent inclusion. Some of the more unusual applications of NBs have included intraocular lens materials, artificial ligaments, and dental implants. The most common biomaterial on the planet is cellulose. Various natural or synthetic cellulose derivatives or similar biomaterials, such as chitin, represent huge opportunities for crafting soft matter assemblies, supramolecular structures, and structural or fibrous materials.

Dr. Dipak K. Sarker
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • supramolecular
  • networks
  • functionalization
  • sensor
  • encapsulation
  • innovation
  • utility
  • unique
  • natural

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Interfacial Effects and the Nano-Scale Disruption in Adsorbed-Layer of Acrylate Polymer-Tween 80 Fabricated Steroid-Bearing Emulsions: A Rheological Study of Supramolecular Materials
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(6), 1612; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061612 - 19 Jun 2021
Viewed by 284
Abstract
The effect of polymer adsorption on the stability and viable shelf life of 55 μm diameter oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing the steroid, betamethasone 21-phosphate was investigated. Two acrylate polymers, Carbopol® 971P and 974P, were added in the role of emulsion stabilizers to [...] Read more.
The effect of polymer adsorption on the stability and viable shelf life of 55 μm diameter oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing the steroid, betamethasone 21-phosphate was investigated. Two acrylate polymers, Carbopol® 971P and 974P, were added in the role of emulsion stabilizers to a model system, representing a non-ionic low molecular weight surfactant-stabilized emulsion (topically applied medicinal cream). For the purposes of this study the dosage of the viscosifier was maintained below 1% w/v and consequently, the consistency of the emulsion was measured in the diluted form. One of the polymers was responsible for elevated degrees of droplet creaming and coalescence and this was closely linked to its surface tension lowering capacity. This lowering was seen at 62 mN/m compared to the routine values at equivalent concentrations of 68 mN/m and 35 mN/m for the betamethasone drug and non-ionic surfactant-Tween 80, respectively. The same polymer also demonstrated a predisposition to form low-micron and greater sized aggregates of nanoparticles that led to extensive flocculation and the formation of a sedimentary precipitate, formed from an amalgam of the components found in the creamed droplet layer. Full article
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Article
Multi-Functional Core-Shell Nanofibers for Wound Healing
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(6), 1546; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11061546 - 11 Jun 2021
Viewed by 345
Abstract
Core-shell nanofibers have great potential for bio-medical applications such as wound healing dressings where multiple drugs and growth factors are expected to be delivered at different healing phases. Compared to monoaxial nanofibers, core-shell nanofibers can control the drug release profile easier, providing sustainable [...] Read more.
Core-shell nanofibers have great potential for bio-medical applications such as wound healing dressings where multiple drugs and growth factors are expected to be delivered at different healing phases. Compared to monoaxial nanofibers, core-shell nanofibers can control the drug release profile easier, providing sustainable and effective drugs and growth factors for wound healing. However, it is challenging to produce core-shell structured nanofibers with a high production rate at low energy consumption. Co-axial centrifugal spinning is an alternative method to address the above limitations to produce core-shell nanofibers effectively. In this study, a co-axial centrifugal spinning device was designed and assembled to produce core-shell nanofibers for controlling the release rate of ibuprofen and hEGF in inflammation and proliferation phases during the wound healing process. Core-shell structured nanofibers were confirmed by TEM. This work demonstrated that the co-axial centrifugal spinning is a high productivity process that can produce materials with a 3D environment mimicking natural tissue scaffold, and the specific drug can be loaded into different layers to control the drug release rate to improve the drug efficiency and promote wound healing. Full article
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Article
A Hyaluronic Acid Functionalized Self-Nano-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS) for Enhancement in Ciprofloxacin Targeted Delivery against Intracellular Infection
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(5), 1086; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11051086 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 449
Abstract
Ciprofloxacin (CIP), a potent anti-bacterial agent of the fluroquinolone family, shows poor solubility and permeability, thus leading to the development of intracellular pathogens induced multi-drug resistance and biofilms formation. To synergistically improve the biopharmaceutical parameters of CIP, a hyaluronic acid (FDA approved biocompatible [...] Read more.
Ciprofloxacin (CIP), a potent anti-bacterial agent of the fluroquinolone family, shows poor solubility and permeability, thus leading to the development of intracellular pathogens induced multi-drug resistance and biofilms formation. To synergistically improve the biopharmaceutical parameters of CIP, a hyaluronic acid (FDA approved biocompatible polymer) functionalized self-nano emulsifying drug delivery system (HA-CIP-SNEDDS) was designed in the present study. SNEDDS formulations were tested via solubility, droplet size, zeta potential, a polydispersity index, thermodynamic stability, surface morphology, solid-state characterization, drug loading/release, cellular uptake, and biocompatibility. The final (HA-CIP-SNEDDS) formulation exhibited a mean droplet size of 50 nm with the 0.3 poly dispersity index and negative zeta potential (−11.4 mV). HA-based SNEDDS containing CIP showed an improved ability to permeate goat intestinal mucus. After 4 h, CIP-SNEDDS showed a 2-fold and HA-CIP-SNEDDS showed a 4-fold permeation enhancement as compared to the free CIP. Moreover, 80% drug release of HA-CIP-SNEDDS was demonstrated to be superior and sustained for 72 h in comparison to free CIP. However, anti-biofilm activity of HA-CIP-SNEDDS against Salmonella typhi was higher than CIP-SNEDDS and free CIP. HA-CIP-SNEDDS exhibited increased biocompatibility and improved oral pharmacokinetics as compared to free CIP. Taken together, HA-CIP-SNEDDS formulation seems to be a promising agent against Salmonella typhi with a strong targeting potential. Full article
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Article
Feasibility of Application of the Newly Developed Nano-Biomaterial, β-TCP/PDLLA, in Maxillofacial Reconstructive Surgery: A Pilot Rat Study
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(2), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020303 - 25 Jan 2021
Viewed by 427
Abstract
This study was performed to examine the applicability of the newly developed nano-biocomposite, β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)/u-HA/poly-d/l-lactide (PDLLA), to bone defects in the oral and maxillofacial area. This novel nano-biocomposite showed several advantages, including biocompatibility, biodegradability, and osteoconductivity. In addition, [...] Read more.
This study was performed to examine the applicability of the newly developed nano-biocomposite, β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)/u-HA/poly-d/l-lactide (PDLLA), to bone defects in the oral and maxillofacial area. This novel nano-biocomposite showed several advantages, including biocompatibility, biodegradability, and osteoconductivity. In addition, its optimal plasticity also allowed its utilization in irregular critical bone defect reconstructive surgery. Here, three different nano-biomaterials, i.e., β-TCP/PDLLA, β-TCP, and PDLLA, were implanted into critical bone defects in the right lateral mandible of 10-week-old Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats as bone graft substitutes. Micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) and immunohistochemical staining for the osteogenesis biomarkers, Runx2, osteocalcin, and the leptin receptor, were performed to investigate and compare bone regeneration between the groups. Although the micro-CT results showed the highest bone mineral density (BMD) and bone volume to total volume (BV/TV) with β-TCP, immunohistochemical analysis indicated better osteogenesis-promoting ability of β-TCP/PDLLA, especially at an early stage of the bone healing process. These results confirmed that the novel nano-biocomposite, β-TCP/PDLLA, which has excellent biocompatibility, bioresorbability and bioactive/osteoconductivity, has the potential to become a next-generation biomaterial for use as a bone graft substitute in maxillofacial reconstructive surgery. Full article
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Review

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Review
Graphene and Reproduction: A Love-Hate Relationship
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(2), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020547 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 709
Abstract
Since its discovery, graphene and its multiple derivatives have been extensively used in many fields and with different applications, even in biomedicine. Numerous efforts have been made to elucidate the potential toxicity derived from their use, giving rise to an adequate number of [...] Read more.
Since its discovery, graphene and its multiple derivatives have been extensively used in many fields and with different applications, even in biomedicine. Numerous efforts have been made to elucidate the potential toxicity derived from their use, giving rise to an adequate number of publications with varied results. On this basis, the study of the reproductive function constitutes a good tool to evaluate not only the toxic effects derived from the use of these materials directly on the individual, but also the potential toxicity passed on to the offspring. By providing a detailed scientometric analysis, the present review provides an updated overview gathering all the research studies focused on the use of graphene and graphene-based materials in the reproductive field, highlighting the consequences and effects reported to date from experiments performed in vivo and in vitro and in different animal species (from Archea to mammals). Special attention is given to the oxidized form of graphene, graphene oxide, which has been recently investigated for its ability to increase the in vitro fertilization outcomes. Thus, the potential use of graphene oxide against infertility is hypothesized here, probably by engineering the spermatozoa and thus manipulating them in a safer and more efficient way. Full article
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