Special Issue "Nanomaterials in Biocatalyst"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Raffaele Saladino

Università della Tuscia, Dipartimento di Agrobiologia ed Agrochimica, Via S. Camillo de Lellis s.n.c., 01100 Viterbo, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 39+0761-357284
Fax: 39+0761-357242
Interests: organic chemistry; bioorganic chemistry; chemistry of natural substances and catalysis
Co-Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Marcello Crucianelli

University of L'Aquila, Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences (DSFC), via Vetoio-Coppito Uno, 67100 L'Aquila, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: + 39 0862 433308
Fax: + 39 0862 433753
Interests: homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysys; organometallic complexes; oxyfunctionalization of bioactive molecules; green chemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanoscience is one of the most important stimulating research areas and the last frontier in modern science. From the most simplistic point of view, nanoscience is the science of small particles. Small particles (i.e., flakes, tubes, wires, and spheres with length scales <100 nm) offer unique and advantageous physical and chemical properties, due in part to high surface area-to-volume ratios associated with the emergence of novel surface capabilities. At the nanoscale, new opportunities for fundamental and technological applications become available, with nanomaterials being proposed in different areas such as microelectronics, coatings and paints, and especially biotechnology—the latter including their use as vehicles for enzyme entrapment and encapsulation, DNA transfection, biosensing, and drug delivery. Among the different types of nanomaterials, the use of carbon (e.g., graphene and carbon nanotubes), metal/metal oxides, polymeric nanomaterials, semiconductor nanocrystals, quantum dots, and renewable polymers in biocatalysis will be the focus of this Special Issue, analyzing the benefits and critical aspects of the enzyme/support interaction in chemical transformations.

Prof. Dr. Raffaele Saladino
Prof. Dr. Marcello Crucianelli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • Carbon nanotubes
  • Carbon nanorods
  • Graphene oxide
  • Nanostructured organic supports
  • Bioactive substances
  • Oxidases
  • Laccases
  • Tyrosinases
  • Lipases
  • Lyases
  • Aldolases
  • Biomimetic system.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Stereoselective Double Reduction of 3-Methyl-2-cyclohexenone, by Use of Palladium and Platinum Nanoparticles, in Tandem with Alcohol Dehydrogenase
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 853; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100853
Received: 21 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
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Abstract
The combination of metal nanoparticles (Pd or Pt NPs) with NAD-dependent thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase (TADH) resulted in the one-flask catalytic double reduction of 3-methyl-2-cyclohexenone to 3-(1S,3S)-methylcyclohexanol. In this article, some assumptions about the interactions between a chemocatalyst and a biocatalyst have been proposed. [...] Read more.
The combination of metal nanoparticles (Pd or Pt NPs) with NAD-dependent thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase (TADH) resulted in the one-flask catalytic double reduction of 3-methyl-2-cyclohexenone to 3-(1S,3S)-methylcyclohexanol. In this article, some assumptions about the interactions between a chemocatalyst and a biocatalyst have been proposed. It was demonstrated that the size of the NPs was the critical parameter for the mutual inhibition: the bigger the NPs, the more harmful for the enzyme they were, even if the NPs themselves were only moderately inactivated. Conversely, the smaller the NPs, the more minimal the TADH denaturation, although they were dramatically inhibited. Resuming, the chemocatalysts were very sensitive to deactivation, which was not related to the amount of enzyme used, while the inhibition of the biocatalyst can be strongly reduced by minimizing the NPs/TADH ratio used to catalyze the reaction. Among some methods to avoid direct binding of NPs with TADH, we found that using large Pd NPs and protecting their surfaces with a silica shell, the overall yield of 3-(1S,3S)-methylcyclohexanol was maximized (36%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Biocatalyst)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Angular Dependency of Particulate Light Scattering Intensity on Determination of Samples with Bimodal Size Distributions Using Dynamic Light Scattering Methods
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(9), 708; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8090708
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2803 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The angular dependency of light scattering intensity from differently sized particles strongly influences the apparent particle size distribution, as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) methods. Manufactured nanomaterials have size distributions more or less; therefore, the effect of detecting the angular dependency of [...] Read more.
The angular dependency of light scattering intensity from differently sized particles strongly influences the apparent particle size distribution, as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) methods. Manufactured nanomaterials have size distributions more or less; therefore, the effect of detecting the angular dependency of the apparent size distribution by DLS is crucial. Commercial DLS instruments typically have two different types of detector angular position. The first is a detector angled at 90°, and the other is a backscattering angle detector. We therefore investigated the coverage and angular dependency when determining the relative concentrations of nanoparticles in polystyrene latex samples with a bimodal size distribution, using DLS methods both experimentally and theoretically. We used five differently sized polystyrene latex particles (one was a 70-nm nanoparticle and the others were various submicron-sized particles) in a variety of mixtures (the ratio of the difference of particle sizes ranged from approximately 2 to 7) to investigate the coverage and angular dependency of the recognition of the relative concentration ratio. In the case of size difference of approximately a factor of 2 or 3 between the two mixed particles (one was fixed at 70 nm), for DLS measurements at light scattering detector angles ranging from 60° to 150°, the homodyne photon correlation functions were approximately straight lines for mixtures of two differently sized polystyrene latex particles. The straight homodyne photon correlation functions were caused by the relatively strong light scattering from larger submicron particles masking the weaker light scattering from the smaller nanoparticles. As a result, DLS analysis could not recognize the relative concentration of nanoparticles in the mixture. In contrast to these samples, for mixtures of two differently sized polystyrene latex particles (one was 70 nm in size) with a size difference of a factor of 5, the homodyne correlation functions displayed an obvious curve for angles larger than 120°. This curve reflected an appropriate relative concentration ratio for the two differently sized polystyrene latex particles. Furthermore, for a mixture of two differently sized particles (one was again 70 nm) with size differences of a factor of 7, the homodyne correlation functions showed a clearly curved shape for detector angles larger than 90°, and yielded appropriate relative concentration ratios for the two different sizes of polystyrene latex particles. These observations were supported by theoretical investigation using Mie theory and asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation measurements with a multi-angle light scattering detector. Our investigation is crucial for achieving some degree of concordance on the determination of the size distribution of particles using DLS methods in industrial and academic fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Biocatalyst)
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Open AccessArticle Iodoxybenzoic Acid Supported on Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Biomimetic Environmental Friendly Oxidative Systems for the Oxidation of Alcohols to Aldehydes
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(7), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8070516
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
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Abstract
Iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX) supported multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) derivatives have been prepared as easily recyclable solid reagents. These compounds have been shown to be able to mimic the alcohol dehydrogenases and monooxygenases promoted oxidation of aromatic alcohols to corresponding aldehydes. Their reactivity [...] Read more.
Iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX) supported multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) derivatives have been prepared as easily recyclable solid reagents. These compounds have been shown to be able to mimic the alcohol dehydrogenases and monooxygenases promoted oxidation of aromatic alcohols to corresponding aldehydes. Their reactivity was found to be dependent on the degree of functionalization of MWCNTs as well as from the chemical properties of the spacers used to bind IBX on the surface of the support. Au-decorated MWCNTs and the presence of longer spacers resulted in the optimal experimental conditions. A high conversion of the substrates and yield of desired products were obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Biocatalyst)
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Open AccessCommunication Bioinspired Design of Alcohol [email protected] TiO2 Microreactors for Sustainable Cycling of NAD+/NADH Coenzyme
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(2), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8020127
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 1 February 2018 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2948 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The bioinspired design and construction of [email protected] microreactors with specific cell-like functionality has generated tremendous interest in recent years. Inspired by their fascinating complexity, scientists have endeavored to understand the essential aspects of a natural cell and create biomimicking microreactors so as to [...] Read more.
The bioinspired design and construction of [email protected] microreactors with specific cell-like functionality has generated tremendous interest in recent years. Inspired by their fascinating complexity, scientists have endeavored to understand the essential aspects of a natural cell and create biomimicking microreactors so as to immobilize enzymes within the hierarchical structure of a microcapsule. In this study, simultaneous encapsulation of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was achieved during the preparation of microcapsules by the Pickering emulsion method using amphiphilic modified TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) as building blocks for assembling the photocatalytic microcapsule membrane. The [email protected]2 NP microreactors exhibited dual catalytic functions, i.e., spatially confined enzymatic catalysis and the membrane-associated photocatalytic oxidation under visible light. The sustainable cycling of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) coenzyme between NADH and NAD+ was realized by enzymatic regeneration of NADH from NAD+ reduction, and was provided in a form that enabled further photocatalytic oxidation to NAD+ under visible light. This bioinspired [email protected]2 NP microreactor allowed the linking of a semiconductor mineral-based inorganic photosystem to enzymatic reactions. This is a first step toward the realization of sustainable biological cycling of NAD+/NADH coenzyme in synthetic functional microsystems operating under visible light irradiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Biocatalyst)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview The Impact of Metallic Nanoparticles on Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 761; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100761
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 22 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 26 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2811 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanotechnology has a wide range of medical and industrial applications. The impact of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) on the proliferation and differentiation of normal, cancer, and stem cells is well-studied. The preparation of NPs, along with their physicochemical properties, is related to their biological [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology has a wide range of medical and industrial applications. The impact of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) on the proliferation and differentiation of normal, cancer, and stem cells is well-studied. The preparation of NPs, along with their physicochemical properties, is related to their biological function. Interestingly, various mechanisms are implicated in metallic NP-induced cellular proliferation and differentiation, such as modulation of signaling pathways, generation of reactive oxygen species, and regulation of various transcription factors. In this review, we will shed light on the biomedical application of metallic NPs and the interaction between NPs and the cellular components. The in vitro and in vivo influence of metallic NPs on stem cell differentiation and proliferation, as well as the mechanisms behind potential toxicity, will be explored. A better understanding of the limitations related to the application of metallic NPs on stem cell proliferation and differentiation will afford clues for optimal design and preparation of metallic NPs for the modulation of stem cell functions and for clinical application in regenerative medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Biocatalyst)
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