Nano Carbon for Batteries Applications

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 August 2019) | Viewed by 28185

Special Issue Editor

Materials Science Institute of Barcelona (ICMAB), Spanish Research Council (CSIC), Campus UAB Bellaterra, ES 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain
Interests: Li-ion batteries and beyond; Zn batteries; redox flow batteries; electrode materials; operando methods

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Carbons are lightweight, environmentally benign, and cost-effective materials that are an essential component in every battery on the market, as conducting agent and as anode material in Li-ion batteries. Nevertheless with their great flexibility in providing complex architectures, they are extensively studied for different functions applied to different battery chemistries. With this Special Issue we aim to a collection highlighting how nanoscale features of carbonaceous materials can enable superior performance in batteries. We welcome contributions on the whole field, in particular in emerging aspects of research, such as cathode in Li-S and metal-air batteries, in lithium anodes or as suspension electrode for flow cells, bio-inspired or bio-derived materials, with studies or reviews that may address preparation methods, modeling, sustainability or technological aspects.

Dr. Dino Tonti
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bottom-up nanostructured carbons
  • electrolyte additives
  • hierarchical carbons
  • biomass-based carbons
  • functionalized nanocarbons
  • mesoporous carbons
  • templated synthesis
  • multiscale modeling
  • life-cycle assessment

Published Papers (7 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

15 pages, 3198 KiB  
Article
Immobilization of Polyiodide Redox Species in Porous Carbon for Battery-Like Electrodes in Eco-Friendly Hybrid Electrochemical Capacitors
by Qamar Abbas, Harald Fitzek, Hartmuth Schröttner, Sonia Dsoke and Bernhard Gollas
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1413; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101413 - 03 Oct 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3085
Abstract
Hybrid electrochemical capacitors have emerged as attractive energy storage option, which perfectly fill the gap between electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) and batteries, combining in one device the high power of the former and the high energy of the latter. We show that the [...] Read more.
Hybrid electrochemical capacitors have emerged as attractive energy storage option, which perfectly fill the gap between electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) and batteries, combining in one device the high power of the former and the high energy of the latter. We show that the charging characteristics of the positive carbon electrode are transformed to behave like a battery operating at nearly constant potential after it is polarized in aqueous iodide electrolyte (1 mol L−1 NaI). Thermogravimetric analysis of the positive carbon electrode confirms the decomposition of iodides trapped inside the carbon pores in a wide temperature range from 190 °C to 425 °C, while Raman spectra of the positive electrode show characteristic peaks of I3 and I5 at 110 and 160 cm−1, respectively. After entrapment of polyiodides in the carbon pores by polarization in 1 mol L−1 NaI, the positive electrode retains the battery-like behavior in another cell, where it is coupled with a carbon-based negative electrode in aqueous NaNO3 electrolyte without any redox species. This new cell (the iodide-ion capacitor) demonstrates the charging characteristics of a hybrid capacitor with capacitance values comparable to the one using 1 mol L−1 NaI. The constant capacitance profile of the new hybrid cell in aqueous NaNO3 for 5000 galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles at 0.5 A g−1 shows that iodide species are confined to the positive battery-like electrode exhibiting negligible potential decay during self-discharge tests, and their shuttling to the negative electrode is prevented in this system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano Carbon for Batteries Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

12 pages, 4192 KiB  
Article
Conversion of Black Carbon Emitted from Diesel-Powered Merchant Ships to Novel Conductive Carbon Black as Anodic Material for Lithium Ion Batteries
by Jae-Hyuk Choi, Dae-Yeong Kim, Won-Ju Lee and Jun Kang
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(9), 1280; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9091280 - 07 Sep 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3783
Abstract
Waste soot generated from diesel engine of merchant ships has ≥ 2 µm agglomerates consisting of 30–50 nm spherical particles, whose morphology is identical to that of carbon black (CB) used in many industrial applications. In this study, we crystallized waste soot by [...] Read more.
Waste soot generated from diesel engine of merchant ships has ≥ 2 µm agglomerates consisting of 30–50 nm spherical particles, whose morphology is identical to that of carbon black (CB) used in many industrial applications. In this study, we crystallized waste soot by heat treatment to transform it into a unique completely graphitic nano-onion structure, which is considerably different from that of commercial conductive CB. While commercial CB has a large specific surface area because of many surface micropores generated due to quenching by water-spraying in the production process, the heat-treated waste soot has a smooth micropore-free surface. Thus, the treated waste soot acquires the shape of CB but has a much smaller specific surface area. When the treated soot is used as a conductive material in lithium ion battery (LIB) half cells, the Coulombic efficiency of the entire anode is improved significantly owing to its low specific surface area; the electrochemical performance of the LIB is considerably enhanced compared to that of conventional conductive materials. Thus, polluting soot generated in marine propulsion can be transformed into a new class of CB with a unique structure by simple heat treatment; this soot can also be used as an inexpensive conductive material to enhance the LIB performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano Carbon for Batteries Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 2112 KiB  
Article
Electrochemistry Studies of Hydrothermally Grown ZnO on 3D-Printed Graphene
by Dimitra Vernardou and George Kenanakis
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(7), 1056; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9071056 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3210
Abstract
A three-dimensional (3D) printer was utilised for the three-dimensional production of graphene-based pyramids and an efficient hydrothermal procedure for ZnO growth. In particular, the 3D-printed graphene pyramids were forwarded in Pyrex glass bottles with autoclavable screw caps filled with 50 mL of an [...] Read more.
A three-dimensional (3D) printer was utilised for the three-dimensional production of graphene-based pyramids and an efficient hydrothermal procedure for ZnO growth. In particular, the 3D-printed graphene pyramids were forwarded in Pyrex glass bottles with autoclavable screw caps filled with 50 mL of an aqueous solution of zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamethylenetetramine for 1 h at 95 °C; sufficient enough time to deposit well-dispersed nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction patterns were in accordance with a Raman analysis and presented the characteristic peaks of graphite along with those of wurtzite ZnO. Different positions on the sample were tested, confirming the uniform dispersion of ZnO on graphene pyramids. From the electrochemical studies, it was found that the charging and discharging processes are affected by the presence of ZnO, indicating one well-defined plateau for each process compared to the previously reported bare graphene pyramids. In total, the material shows a value of 325 mAh g−1, a capacitance retention factor of 92% after 5000 scans, and a coulombic efficiency of 100% for the first scan that drops to 85% for the 5000th scan. This excellent performance is the result of the effect of ZnO and graphene that combines two Li+ accommodation sites, and the contribution of graphene pyramids, which provides more available sites to favor lithium storage capacity. Hence, this anode may be a promising electrode material for lithium-ion batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano Carbon for Batteries Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 3012 KiB  
Article
Combined Influence of Meso- and Macroporosity of Soft-Hard Templated Carbon Electrodes on the Performance of Li-O2 Cells with Different Configurations
by Mara Olivares-Marín, Mohamed Aklalouch and Dino Tonti
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(6), 810; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9060810 - 28 May 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2977
Abstract
Li-O2 batteries can offer large discharge capacities, but this depends on the morphology of the discharged Li2O2, which in turn is strongly affected by the nanostructured carbon used as support in the air cathode. However, the relation with [...] Read more.
Li-O2 batteries can offer large discharge capacities, but this depends on the morphology of the discharged Li2O2, which in turn is strongly affected by the nanostructured carbon used as support in the air cathode. However, the relation with the textural parameters is complex. To investigate the combined effect of channels of different sizes, meso-macroporous carbons with similar mesopore volume but different pore size distribution were prepared from the polymerization of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) in the presence of surfactants and micro-CaCO3 particles. The carbon materials were used as active materials of air cathodes flooded by ionic liquid-based electrolytes in Li-O2 cells with two different configurations, one with a static electrolyte and the other with a stirred electrolyte, which favor a film-like and large particle deposition, respectively. The presence of large pores enhances the discharge capacity with both mechanisms. Conversely, with respect to the reversible capacity, the trend depends on the cell configuration, with macroporosity favoring better performance with static, but poorer with stirred electrolytes. However, all mesoporous carbons demonstrated larger reversible capacity than a purely macroporous electrode made of carbon black. These results indicate that in addition to pore volume, a proper arrangement of large and small pores is important for discharge capacity, while an extended interface can enhance reversibility in Li–O2 battery cathodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano Carbon for Batteries Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

9 pages, 2463 KiB  
Article
Nano Hard Carbon Anodes for Sodium-Ion Batteries
by Dae-Yeong Kim, Dong-Hyun Kim, Soo-Hyun Kim, Eun-Kyung Lee, Sang-Kyun Park, Ji-Woong Lee, Yong-Sup Yun, Si-Young Choi and Jun Kang
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(5), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9050793 - 23 May 2019
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 6858
Abstract
A hindrance to the practical use of sodium-ion batteries is the lack of adequate anode materials. By utilizing the co-intercalation reaction, graphite, which is the most common anode material of lithium-ion batteries, was used for storing sodium ion. However, its performance, such as [...] Read more.
A hindrance to the practical use of sodium-ion batteries is the lack of adequate anode materials. By utilizing the co-intercalation reaction, graphite, which is the most common anode material of lithium-ion batteries, was used for storing sodium ion. However, its performance, such as reversible capacity and coulombic efficiency, remains unsatisfactory for practical needs. Therefore, to overcome these drawbacks, a new carbon material was synthesized so that co-intercalation could occur efficiently. This carbon material has the same morphology as carbon black; that is, it has a wide pathway due to a turbostratic structure, and a short pathway due to small primary particles that allows the co-intercalation reaction to occur efficiently. Additionally, due to the numerous voids present in the inner amorphous structure, the sodium storage capacity was greatly increased. Furthermore, owing to the coarse co-intercalation reaction due to the surface pore structure, the formation of solid-electrolyte interphase was greatly suppressed and the first cycle coulombic efficiency reached 80%. This study shows that the carbon material alone can be used to design good electrode materials for sodium-ion batteries without the use of next-generation materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano Carbon for Batteries Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2381 KiB  
Article
Biphenyl-Bridged Organosilica as a Precursor for Mesoporous Silicon Oxycarbide and Its Application in Lithium and Sodium Ion Batteries
by Manuel Weinberger, Po-Hua Su, Herwig Peterlik, Mika Lindén and Margret Wohlfahrt-Mehrens
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(5), 754; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9050754 - 16 May 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3668
Abstract
Silicon oxycarbides (SiOC) are an interesting alternative to state-of-the-art lithium battery anode materials, such as graphite, due to potentially higher capacities and rate capabilities. Recently, it was also shown that this class of materials shows great prospects towards sodium ion batteries. Yet, bulk [...] Read more.
Silicon oxycarbides (SiOC) are an interesting alternative to state-of-the-art lithium battery anode materials, such as graphite, due to potentially higher capacities and rate capabilities. Recently, it was also shown that this class of materials shows great prospects towards sodium ion batteries. Yet, bulk SiOCs are still severely restricted with regard to their electrochemical performance. In the course of this work, a novel and facile strategy towards the synthesis of mesoporous and carbon-rich SiOC will be presented. To achieve this goal, 4,4′-bis(triethoxysilyl)-1,1′-biphenyl was sol–gel processed in the presence of the triblock copolymer Pluronic P123. After the removal of the surfactant using Soxhlet extraction the organosilica material was subsequently carbonized under an inert gas atmosphere at 1000 °C. The resulting black powder was able to maintain all structural features and the porosity of the initial organosilica precursor making it an interesting candidate as an anode material for both sodium and lithium ion batteries. To get a detailed insight into the electrochemical properties of the novel material in the respective battery systems, electrodes from the nanostructured SiOC were studied in half-cells with galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements. It will be shown that nanostructuring of SiOC is a viable strategy in order to outperform commercially applied competitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano Carbon for Batteries Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

10 pages, 3273 KiB  
Article
Integrating TiO2/SiO2 into Electrospun Carbon Nanofibers towards Superior Lithium Storage Performance
by Wenxing Liu, Tianhao Yao, Sanmu Xie, Yiyi She and Hongkang Wang
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010068 - 05 Jan 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3621
Abstract
In order to overcome the poor electrical conductivity of titania (TiO2) and silica (SiO2) anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), we herein report a facile preparation of integrated titania–silica–carbon (TSC) nanofibers via electrospinning and subsequent heat-treatment. Both titania [...] Read more.
In order to overcome the poor electrical conductivity of titania (TiO2) and silica (SiO2) anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), we herein report a facile preparation of integrated titania–silica–carbon (TSC) nanofibers via electrospinning and subsequent heat-treatment. Both titania and silica are successfully embedded into the conductive N-doped carbon nanofibers, and they synergistically reinforce the overall strength of the TSC nanofibers after annealing (Note that titania–carbon or silica–carbon nanofibers cannot be obtained under the same condition). When applied as an anode for LIBs, the TSC nanofiber electrode shows superior cycle stability (502 mAh/g at 100 mA/g after 300 cycles) and high rate capability (572, 518, 421, 334, and 232 mAh/g each after 10 cycles at 100, 200, 500, 1000 and 2000 mA/g, respectively). Our results demonstrate that integration of titania/silica into N-doped carbon nanofibers greatly enhances the electrode conductivity and the overall structural stability of the TSC nanofibers upon repeated lithiation/delithiation cycling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano Carbon for Batteries Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop