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Open AccessArticle

Nano Hard Carbon Anodes for Sodium-Ion Batteries

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Division of Marine Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, 727 Taejong-ro, Yeongdo-gu, Busan 49112, Korea
2
Korea Maritime Equipment Research Institute/ICT Convergence Team, 435 Haeyang-ro, Yeongdo-gu, Busan 49111, Korea
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Department of Ocean Advanced Materials Convergence Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, 727 Taejong-ro, Yeongdo-gu, Busan 49112, Korea
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Division of Marine Information Technology, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, 727 Taejong-ro, Yeongdo-gu, Busan 49112, Korea
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Division of Marine System Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, 727 Taejong-ro, Yeongdo-gu, Busan 49112, Korea
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Department of Materials Science and Engineering, POSTECH, 77 Cheongam-ro, Pohang 37673, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(5), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9050793
Received: 20 April 2019 / Revised: 14 May 2019 / Accepted: 17 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano Carbon for Batteries Applications)
A hindrance to the practical use of sodium-ion batteries is the lack of adequate anode materials. By utilizing the co-intercalation reaction, graphite, which is the most common anode material of lithium-ion batteries, was used for storing sodium ion. However, its performance, such as reversible capacity and coulombic efficiency, remains unsatisfactory for practical needs. Therefore, to overcome these drawbacks, a new carbon material was synthesized so that co-intercalation could occur efficiently. This carbon material has the same morphology as carbon black; that is, it has a wide pathway due to a turbostratic structure, and a short pathway due to small primary particles that allows the co-intercalation reaction to occur efficiently. Additionally, due to the numerous voids present in the inner amorphous structure, the sodium storage capacity was greatly increased. Furthermore, owing to the coarse co-intercalation reaction due to the surface pore structure, the formation of solid-electrolyte interphase was greatly suppressed and the first cycle coulombic efficiency reached 80%. This study shows that the carbon material alone can be used to design good electrode materials for sodium-ion batteries without the use of next-generation materials. View Full-Text
Keywords: nano hard carbon; turbostratic structure; solid-electrolyte interphase; co-intercalation reaction; sodium-ion battery nano hard carbon; turbostratic structure; solid-electrolyte interphase; co-intercalation reaction; sodium-ion battery
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Kim, D.-Y.; Kim, D.-H.; Kim, S.-H.; Lee, E.-K.; Park, S.-K.; Lee, J.-W.; Yun, Y.-S.; Choi, S.-Y.; Kang, J. Nano Hard Carbon Anodes for Sodium-Ion Batteries. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 793.

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