Special Issue "Laser Synthesis and Modification of Materials at the Nanoscale"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Rebeca De Nalda
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CSIC - Instituto de Química Física Rocasolano (IQFR), Madrid, Spain
Interests: Laser-induced processes in physicochemical systems: laser induced plasmas, laser fabrication and processing of materials, laser ablation, pulsed laser deposition, laser applications in nanotechnology, nonlinear optics, harmonic generation, molecular dynamics, laser control
Dr. Esther Rebollar
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CSIC - Instituto de Química Física Rocasolano (IQFR), Madrid, Spain
Interests: laser micro- and nanoprocessing of polymers; study of mechanisms of laser ablation of polymers; laser induced period surface structures in polymers; polymer thin films; applications of modified polymers; functional polymers; pulsed laser deposition; atomic force microscopy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since the first laser was developed in 1960, laser technology has been growing, and today, laser techniques constitute attractive alternatives for the processing of materials affording the sought versatility and reliability. Indeed, laser techniques can be used to fabricate substrates with a variety of high-precision patterns at different length scales and can be applied in noncontact and flexible set-ups under a great variety of environments. Moreover, researchers can make use of the versatility of laser sources and adapt them to material properties so that targeted nanoparticle distributions or specific surface patterns are obtained. Laser-based synthesis of nanomaterials and nanostructures find applications in many areas, such as plasmonic sensors, solar cells, catalysis, nano-biophotonics, and medicine, just to name a few.

This Special issue on “Laser Synthesis and Modification of Materials at the Nanoscale” aims to gather contributions on recent advances demonstrating the capabilities of laser methodologies to process materials at the nanometer scale. Contributions regarding both the fundamentals of the laser processing mechanisms or the applications of the obtained nanomaterials will be welcome.

Dr. Rebeca De Nalda
Dr. Esther Rebollar
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Laser nanostructuring
  • Laser ablation
  • Laser texturing
  • Laser deposition
  • Laser synthesis
  • Laser transfer and printing
  • Laser-assisted formation of nanoparticles
  • Modeling and simulation of laser-induced nanomaterials
  • Applications of laser-nanostructured materials

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
Femtosecond Double-Pulse Laser Ablation and Deposition of Co-Doped ZnS Thin Films
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(11), 2229; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10112229 - 10 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 732
Abstract
Nanostructured thin films of Co-doped zinc sulfide were synthesized through femtosecond pulsed laser deposition. The scheme involved ablation of physically mixed Co and ZnS with pairs of ultrashort pulses separated in time in the 0–300 ps range. In situ monitorization of the deposition [...] Read more.
Nanostructured thin films of Co-doped zinc sulfide were synthesized through femtosecond pulsed laser deposition. The scheme involved ablation of physically mixed Co and ZnS with pairs of ultrashort pulses separated in time in the 0–300 ps range. In situ monitorization of the deposition process was carried out through a simultaneous reflectivity measurement. The crystallinity of generated nanoparticles and the inclusion of Co in the ZnS lattice is demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (TEM-EDX) characterization. Surface morphology, Raman response, and photoluminescence of the films have also been assessed. The role of interpulse temporal separation is most visible in the thickness of the films obtained at the same total fluence, with much thicker films deposited with short delays than with individual uncoupled pulses. The proportion of Co in the synthesized doped ZnS nanoparticles is found to be substantially lower than the original proportion, and practically independent on interpulse delay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Synthesis and Modification of Materials at the Nanoscale)
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Article
Metal Nanoparticle Film Deposition by Femtosecond Laser Ablation at Atmospheric Pressure
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(11), 2118; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10112118 - 25 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 639
Abstract
Nanoparticle gold films were deposited using femtosecond laser ablation in argon at atmospheric pressure in an arrangement where a flat Au target was irradiated through a transparent substrate in close proximity. Spatially extended films were made by rastering the target and substrate assembly [...] Read more.
Nanoparticle gold films were deposited using femtosecond laser ablation in argon at atmospheric pressure in an arrangement where a flat Au target was irradiated through a transparent substrate in close proximity. Spatially extended films were made by rastering the target and substrate assembly together in the laser beam. Fast imaging clearly showed pronounced narrowing of the ablation plume, which can be understood in terms of laser induced multiphoton ionisation and heating of the gas near the ablation site. Deposition was possible for target-substrate separation up to 2 mm. The equivalent thickness of the nanoparticle film was controlled in the range 0.4–28 nm by changing the target-substrate separation and the shot-to-shot spacing of ablation spot raster. The mean Feret diameter varied in the range 14–40 nm depending on the deposition conditions, and all the films showed a surface plasmon resonance at about 525 nm, which was nearly independent of the equivalent thickness. The technique can readily be applied to other materials for the fabrication of nanoparticulate films at atmospheric pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Synthesis and Modification of Materials at the Nanoscale)
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Article
Increasing the Size-Selectivity in Laser-Based g/h Liquid Flow Synthesis of Pt and PtPd Nanoparticles for CO and NO Oxidation in Industrial Automotive Exhaust Gas Treatment Benchmarking
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(8), 1582; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10081582 - 12 Aug 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1082
Abstract
PtPd catalysts are state-of-the-art for automotive diesel exhaust gas treatment. Although wet-chemical preparation of PtPd nanoparticles below 3 nm and kg-scale synthesis of supported PtPd/Al2O3 are already established, the partial segregation of the bimetallic nanoparticles remains an issue that adversely [...] Read more.
PtPd catalysts are state-of-the-art for automotive diesel exhaust gas treatment. Although wet-chemical preparation of PtPd nanoparticles below 3 nm and kg-scale synthesis of supported PtPd/Al2O3 are already established, the partial segregation of the bimetallic nanoparticles remains an issue that adversely affects catalytic performance. As a promising alternative, laser-based catalyst preparation allows the continuous synthesis of surfactant-free, solid-solution alloy nanoparticles at the g/h-scale. However, the required productivity of the catalytically relevant size fraction <10 nm has yet to be met. In this work, by optimization of ablation and fragmentation conditions, the continuous flow synthesis of nanoparticles with a productivity of the catalytically relevant size fraction <10 nm of >1 g/h is presented via an in-process size tuning strategy. After the laser-based preparation of hectoliters of colloid and more than 2 kg of PtPd/Al2O3 wash coat, the laser-generated catalysts were benchmarked against an industry-relevant reference catalyst. The conversion of CO by laser-generated catalysts was found to be equivalent to the reference, while improved activity during NO oxidation was achieved. Finally, the present study validates that laser-generated catalysts meet the size and productivity requirements for industrial standard operating procedures. Hence, laser-based catalyst synthesis appears to be a promising alternative to chemical-based preparation of alloy nanoparticles for developing industrial catalysts, such as those needed in the treatment of exhaust gases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Synthesis and Modification of Materials at the Nanoscale)
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Article
Performance and Mechanism of Photoelectrocatalytic Activity of MoSx/WO3 Heterostructures Obtained by Reactive Pulsed Laser Deposition for Water Splitting
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(5), 871; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10050871 - 30 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1087
Abstract
This work studies the factors that affect the efficiency of the photoelectrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) using MoSx/WO3 nano-heterostructures obtained by reactive pulsed laser deposition (RPLD) on glass substrates covered with fluorinated tin oxide (FTO). Another focus of the research [...] Read more.
This work studies the factors that affect the efficiency of the photoelectrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) using MoSx/WO3 nano-heterostructures obtained by reactive pulsed laser deposition (RPLD) on glass substrates covered with fluorinated tin oxide (FTO). Another focus of the research is the potential of MoSx nanofilms as a precursor for MoOz(S) nanofilms, which enhance the efficiency of the photo-activated oxygen evolution reaction (OER) using the MoOz(S)/WO3/FTO heterostructures. The nanocrystalline WO3 film was created by laser ablation of a W target in dry air at a substrate temperature of 420 °C. Amorphous MoSx nanofilms (2 ≤ x ≤ 12) were obtained by laser ablation of an Mo target in H2S gas of varied pressure at room temperature of the substrate. Studies of the energy band structures showed that for all MoSx/WO3/FTO samples, photo-activated HER in an acid solution proceeded through the Z-scheme. The highest photoelectrochemical HER efficiency (a photocurrent density ~1 mA/cm2 at a potential of ~0 V under Xe lamp illumination (~100 mW/cm2)) was found for porous MoS4.5 films containing the highest concentration of catalytically active sites attributed to S ligands. During the anodic posttreatment of porous MoSx nanofilms, MoOz(S) films with a narrow energy band gap were formed. The highest OER efficiency (a photocurrent density ~5.3 mA/cm2 at 1.6 V) was detected for MoOz(S)/WO3/FTO photoanodes that were prepared by posttreatment of the MoSx~3.2 precursor. The MoOz(S) film contributed to the effective photogeneration of electron–hole pairs that was followed by the transport of photoelectrons from MoOz(S) into the WO3 film and the effective participation of holes possessing strong oxidation ability in the OER on the surface of the MoOz(S) film. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Synthesis and Modification of Materials at the Nanoscale)
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Article
Continuous-Wave Laser-Induced Transfer of Metal Nanoparticles to Arbitrary Polymer Substrates
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040701 - 07 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1499
Abstract
Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) and selective laser sintering (SLS) are two distinct laser processes that can be applied to metal nanoparticle (NP) ink for the fabrication of a conductive layer on various substrates. A pulsed laser and a continuous-wave (CW) laser are utilized [...] Read more.
Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) and selective laser sintering (SLS) are two distinct laser processes that can be applied to metal nanoparticle (NP) ink for the fabrication of a conductive layer on various substrates. A pulsed laser and a continuous-wave (CW) laser are utilized respectively in the conventional LIFT and SLS processes; however, in this study, CW laser-induced transfer of the metal NP is proposed to achieve simultaneous sintering and transfer of the metal NP to a wide range of polymer substrates. At the optimum laser parameters, it was shown that a high-quality uniform metal conductor was created on the acceptor substrate while the metal NP was sharply detached from the donor substrate, and we anticipate that such an asymmetric transfer phenomenon is related to the difference in the adhesion strengths. The resultant metal electrode exhibits a low resistivity that is comparable to its bulk counterpart, together with strong adhesion to the target polymer substrate. The versatility of the proposed process in terms of the target substrate and applicable metal NPs brightens its prospects as a facile manufacturing scheme for flexible electronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Synthesis and Modification of Materials at the Nanoscale)
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Article
Reactive Pulsed Laser Deposition of Clustered-Type MoSx (x ~ 2, 3, and 4) Films and Their Solid Lubricant Properties at Low Temperature
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 653; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040653 - 01 Apr 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 935
Abstract
We studied the tribological properties of amorphous molybdenum sulfide (MoSx) thin-film coatings during sliding friction in an oxidizing environment at a low temperature (−100 °C). To obtain films with different sulfur contents (x ~ 2, 3, and 4), we used [...] Read more.
We studied the tribological properties of amorphous molybdenum sulfide (MoSx) thin-film coatings during sliding friction in an oxidizing environment at a low temperature (−100 °C). To obtain films with different sulfur contents (x ~ 2, 3, and 4), we used reactive pulsed laser deposition, where laser ablation of the Mo target was performed in H2S at various pressures. The lowest coefficient of friction (0.08) was observed during tribo-testing of the MoS3 coating. This coating had good ductility and low wear; the wear of a steel counterbody was minimal. The MoS2 coating had the best wear resistance, due to the tribo-film adhering well to the coating in the wear track. Tribo-modification of the MoS2 coating, however, caused a higher coefficient of friction (0.16) and the most intensive wear of the counterbody. The MoS4 coating had inferior tribological properties. This study explored the mechanisms of possible tribo-chemical changes and structural rearrangements in MoSx coatings upon contact with a counterbody when exposed to oxygen and water. The properties of the tribo-film and the efficiency of its transfer onto the coating and/or the counterbody largely depended on local atomic packing of the nanoclusters that formed the structure of the amorphous MoSx films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Synthesis and Modification of Materials at the Nanoscale)
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Perspective
Quo Vadis LIPSS?—Recent and Future Trends on Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 1950; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10101950 - 30 Sep 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1638
Abstract
Nanotechnology and lasers are among the most successful and active fields of research and technology that have boomed during the past two decades. Many improvements are based on the controlled manufacturing of nanostructures that enable tailored material functionalization for a wide range of [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology and lasers are among the most successful and active fields of research and technology that have boomed during the past two decades. Many improvements are based on the controlled manufacturing of nanostructures that enable tailored material functionalization for a wide range of industrial applications, electronics, medicine, etc., and have already found entry into our daily life. One appealing approach for manufacturing such nanostructures in a flexible, robust, rapid, and contactless one-step process is based on the generation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). This Perspective article analyzes the footprint of the research area of LIPSS on the basis of a detailed literature search, provides a brief overview on its current trends, describes the European funding strategies within the Horizon 2020 programme, and outlines promising future directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Synthesis and Modification of Materials at the Nanoscale)
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