Special Issue "Laser Synthesis of Nanomaterials"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Synthesis, Interfaces and Nanostructures".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Mohamed Boutinguiza
Website
Guest Editor
Applied Physics Department, School of Engineering, University of Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo, Pontevedra, Spain
Interests: laser materials processing (ablation, cutting, texturing, etc.); laser processing of biomaterials; laser synthesis and deposition of nanomaterials
Dr. Antonio Riveiro
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Guest Editor
Applied Physics Department, School of Engineering, University of Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo, Pontevedra, Spain
Interests: laser processing; laser welding; laser cutting; laser cladding; laser texturing; laser surface treatments; laser microprocessing; laser drilling
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Jesús del Val
Website
Guest Editor
Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo, Spain
LaserON Laser Applications Research Group, University of Vigo, Industrial Technological Research Centre - MTI, Rúa Maxwel, 36310 Vigo, Spain
Interests: laser materials processing; laser surface modification; laser micro-cladding; laser micro-texturization; bioactive glasses processing and characterization; nanoparticle production by laser ablation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanomaterials are one of the main topics of research at present. These materials, with at least one of their dimensions in the nanoscale (i.e., in a length range from 1 nm to 100 nm) have remarkable or unconventional properties compared to bulk materials. These materials are currently used in many applications; however, new potential uses are being investigated. In this sense, there is a large interest in their use in medicine, electronic devices, production and storage of energy, composite materials, etc. The production of nanomaterials is addressed through physical and/or chemical methods; however, most of these methods exhibit low reproducibility or a low production rate or make use of toxic chemicals. In order to avoid most of these drawbacks, laser-based synthesis of nanomaterials has emerged as an alternative to overcome these limitations. This family of methods uses a laser beam to produce different nanomaterials (e.g., nanoparticles, nanowires or 2D materials) using diverse approaches. Techniques such as those based on laser ablation, laser vaporization, pulsed laser deposition (PLD), laser–chemical vapor deposition (LCVD), etc. are being explored, at present, to fabricate these nanoscale materials with a controlled size and shape. In this context, the present Special Issue will include research papers addressing the most recent developments in this field to summarize the current state-of-the-art in the synthesis of nanomaterials using laser techniques.

Suitable topics include but are not limited to:

  • Laser nanoprocessing;
  • Laser ablation techniques, liquid-phase laser ablation;
  • Laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition (LCVD);
  • Pulsed laser deposition;
  • Ultrafast laser synthesis of nanomaterials;
  • Laser-Induced Fragmentation.

Prof. Dr. Mohamed Boutinguiza
Dr. Antonio Riveiro
Dr. Jesús del Val
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Laser ablation
  • Laser synthesis
  • Nanoparticles
  • Nanofibers
  • 2D materials
  • Laser-induced fragmentation
  • LCVD

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of Hollow Channels Surrounded by Gold Nanoparticles in Hydrogel by Femtosecond Laser Irradiation
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(12), 2529; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10122529 - 16 Dec 2020
Abstract
The fabrication of hollow channels surrounded by gold nanoparticles in poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) is demonstrated. The absorption spectra show that gold nanoparticles were formed at the periphery of the focus by reduction of gold ions. The microscope observation and Raman spectroscopy analyses [...] Read more.
The fabrication of hollow channels surrounded by gold nanoparticles in poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) is demonstrated. The absorption spectra show that gold nanoparticles were formed at the periphery of the focus by reduction of gold ions. The microscope observation and Raman spectroscopy analyses indicate that the center of the channels were void of PEGDA, which can be attributed to the femtosecond laser-induced degradation of the hydrogel. Since both the hydrogel and gold nanoparticles are biocompatible, this technique of fabricating hollow channels surrounded by gold nanoparticles is promising for tissue engineering, drug screening, and lab-on-a-chip devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Synthesis of Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Specific Features of Reactive Pulsed Laser Deposition of Solid Lubricating Nanocomposite Mo–S–C–H Thin-Film Coatings
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(12), 2456; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10122456 - 08 Dec 2020
Abstract
This work investigates the structure and chemical states of thin-film coatings obtained by pulsed laser codeposition of Mo and C in a reactive gas (H2S). The coatings were analysed for their prospective use as solid lubricating coatings for friction units operating [...] Read more.
This work investigates the structure and chemical states of thin-film coatings obtained by pulsed laser codeposition of Mo and C in a reactive gas (H2S). The coatings were analysed for their prospective use as solid lubricating coatings for friction units operating in extreme conditions. Pulsed laser ablation of molybdenum and graphite targets was accompanied by the effective interaction of the deposited Mo and C layers with the reactive gas and the chemical states of Mo- and C-containing nanophases were interdependent. This had a negative effect on the tribological properties of Mo–S–C–H nanocomposite coatings obtained at H2S pressures of 9 and 18 Pa, which were optimal for obtaining MoS2 and MoS3 coatings, respectively. The best tribological properties were found for the Mo–S–C–H_5.5 coating formed at an H2S pressure of 5.5 Pa. At this pressure, the x = S/Mo ratio in the MoSx nanophase was slightly less than 2, and the a-C(S,H) nanophase contained ~8 at.% S and ~16 at.% H. The a-C(S,H) nanophase with this composition provided a low coefficient of friction (~0.03) at low ambient humidity and 22 °C. The nanophase composition in Mo–S–C–H_5.5 coating demonstrated fairly good antifriction properties and increased wear resistance even at −100 °C. For wet friction conditions, Mo–S–C–H nanocomposite coatings did not have significant advantages in reducing friction compared to the MoS2 and MoS3 coatings formed by reactive pulsed laser deposition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Synthesis of Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Laser Printing of Plasmonic Nanosponges
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(12), 2427; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10122427 - 04 Dec 2020
Abstract
Three-dimensional porous nanostructures made of noble metals represent novel class of nanomaterials promising for nonlinear nanooptics and sensors. Such nanostructures are typically fabricated using either reproducible yet time-consuming and costly multi-step lithography protocols or less reproducible chemical synthesis that involve liquid processing with [...] Read more.
Three-dimensional porous nanostructures made of noble metals represent novel class of nanomaterials promising for nonlinear nanooptics and sensors. Such nanostructures are typically fabricated using either reproducible yet time-consuming and costly multi-step lithography protocols or less reproducible chemical synthesis that involve liquid processing with toxic compounds. Here, we combined scalable nanosecond-laser ablation with advanced engineering of the chemical composition of thin substrate-supported Au films to produce nanobumps containing multiple nanopores inside. Most of the nanopores hidden beneath the nanobump surface can be further uncapped using gentle etching of the nanobumps by an Ar-ion beam to form functional 3D plasmonic nanosponges. The nanopores 10–150 nm in diameter were found to appear via laser-induced explosive evaporation/boiling and coalescence of the randomly arranged nucleation sites formed by nitrogen-rich areas of the Au films. Density of the nanopores can be controlled by the amount of the nitrogen in the Au films regulated in the process of their magnetron sputtering assisted with nitrogen-containing discharge gas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Synthesis of Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Oxide Iron Nanoparticles Using Laser Ablation for Possible Hyperthermia Applications
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(11), 2099; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10112099 - 23 Oct 2020
Abstract
In this work, iron oxide nanoparticles produced using the laser ablation technique were studied in order to determine the characteristics of these nanoparticles as a function of the laser energy for the possible application in magnetic hyperthermia. Nanoparticles were obtained by varying the [...] Read more.
In this work, iron oxide nanoparticles produced using the laser ablation technique were studied in order to determine the characteristics of these nanoparticles as a function of the laser energy for the possible application in magnetic hyperthermia. Nanoparticles were obtained by varying the power of the laser considering values of 90, 173, 279 and 370 mJ. The morphology of these nanoparticles was determined using the dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scattering transmission electron microscopy (STEM) techniques, confirming that the size of the particles was in the order of nanometers. A great influence of the laser power on the particle size was also observed, caused by the competition between the energy and the temperature. The composition was determined by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, showing the presence of magnetite, maghemite and hematite. The hyperthermia measurements showed that the temperature rise of the iron oxide nanoparticles was not greatly influenced by the energy change, the heating capacity of magnetic NPs is quantified by the specific absorption rate (SAR), that tends to decrease with increasing energy, which indicates a dependence of these values on the nanoparticles concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Synthesis of Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Photocatalytic Properties of Graphene/Gold and Graphene Oxide/Gold Nanocomposites Synthesized by Pulsed Laser Induced Photolysis
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(10), 1985; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10101985 - 07 Oct 2020
Abstract
Graphene (Gr)/gold (Au) and graphene-oxide (GO)/Au nanocomposites (NCPs) were synthesized by performing pulsed-laser-induced photolysis (PLIP) on hydrogen peroxide and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) that coexisted with Gr or GO in an aqueous solution. A 3-month-long aqueous solution stability was observed in the [...] Read more.
Graphene (Gr)/gold (Au) and graphene-oxide (GO)/Au nanocomposites (NCPs) were synthesized by performing pulsed-laser-induced photolysis (PLIP) on hydrogen peroxide and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) that coexisted with Gr or GO in an aqueous solution. A 3-month-long aqueous solution stability was observed in the NCPs synthesized without using surfactants and additional processing. The synthesized NCPs were characterized using absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction to prove the existence of hybrid Gr/Au or GO/Au NCPs. The synthesized NCPs were further evaluated using the photocatalytic reaction of methylene blue (MB), a synthetic dye, under UV radiation, visible light (central wavelength of 470 nm), and full spectrum of solar light. Both Gr/Au and GO/Au NCPs exhibited photocatalytic degradation of MB under solar light illumination with removal efficiencies of 92.1% and 94.5%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Synthesis of Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
ZnO Nanoparticle/Graphene Hybrid Photodetectors via Laser Fragmentation in Liquid
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1648; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091648 - 21 Aug 2020
Abstract
By combining the enhanced photosensitive properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles and the excellent transport characteristics of graphene, UV-sensitive, solar-blind hybrid optoelectronic devices have been demonstrated. These hybrid devices offer high responsivity and gain, making them well suited for photodetector applications. Here, we report [...] Read more.
By combining the enhanced photosensitive properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles and the excellent transport characteristics of graphene, UV-sensitive, solar-blind hybrid optoelectronic devices have been demonstrated. These hybrid devices offer high responsivity and gain, making them well suited for photodetector applications. Here, we report a hybrid ZnO nanoparticle/graphene phototransistor that exhibits a responsivity up to 4 × 104 AW−1 and gain of up to 1.3 × 105 with high UV wavelength selectivity. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by pulsed laser fragmentation in liquid to attain a simple, efficient, ligand-free method for nanoparticle fabrication. By combining simple fabrication processes with a promising device architecture, highly sensitive ZnO nanoparticle/graphene UV photodetectors were successfully demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Synthesis of Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessCommunication
Hybrid Orthorhombic Carbon Flakes Intercalated with Bimetallic Au-Ag Nanoclusters: Influence of Synthesis Parameters on Optical Properties
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(7), 1376; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10071376 - 15 Jul 2020
Abstract
Until recently, planar carbonaceous structures such as graphene did not show any birefringence under normal incidence. In contrast, a recently reported novel orthorhombic carbonaceous structure with metal nanoparticle inclusions does show intrinsic birefringence, outperforming other natural orthorhombic crystalline materials. These flake-like structures self-assemble [...] Read more.
Until recently, planar carbonaceous structures such as graphene did not show any birefringence under normal incidence. In contrast, a recently reported novel orthorhombic carbonaceous structure with metal nanoparticle inclusions does show intrinsic birefringence, outperforming other natural orthorhombic crystalline materials. These flake-like structures self-assemble during a laser-induced growth process. In this article, we explore the potential of this novel material and the design freedom during production. We study in particular the dependence of the optical and geometrical properties of these hybrid carbon-metal flakes on the fabrication parameters. The influence of the laser irradiation time, concentration of the supramolecular complex in the solution, and an external electric field applied during the growth process are investigated. In all cases, the self-assembled metamaterial exhibits a strong linear birefringence in the visible spectral range, while the wavelength-dependent attenuation was found to hinge on the concentration of the supramolecular complex in the solution. By varying the fabrication parameters one can steer the shape and size of the flakes. This study provides a route towards fabrication of novel hybrid carbon-metal flakes with tailored optical and geometrical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Synthesis of Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Zn-Doped Calcium Copper Titanate Synthesized via Rapid Laser Sintering of Sol-Gel Derived Precursors
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(6), 1163; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10061163 - 13 Jun 2020
Abstract
Zn-doped calcium copper titanate (CCTO) was successfully synthesized by rapid laser sintering of sol-gel derived precursors without the conventional long-time heat treatment. The structural, morphological, and crystalline properties were characterized, and the performances of dielectrics and impedance were measured and discussed. The X-ray [...] Read more.
Zn-doped calcium copper titanate (CCTO) was successfully synthesized by rapid laser sintering of sol-gel derived precursors without the conventional long-time heat treatment. The structural, morphological, and crystalline properties were characterized, and the performances of dielectrics and impedance were measured and discussed. The X-ray diffractometer results show that Zn-doped CCTO is polycrystalline in a cubic structure, according to the doping ratio of Ca(Cu2Zn)Ti4O12. Electron microscopy showed that Zn-doped CCTO has a denser microstructure with better uniformness with shrunken interplanar spacing of 2.598 nm for the plane (220). Comparing with undoped CCTO, the permittivity almost remains unchanged in the range of 102–106 Hz, demonstrating good stability on frequency. The electrical mechanism was investigated and is discussed through the impedance spectroscopy analysis. The resistance of grain and grain boundary decreases with rising temperature. Activation energies for the grain boundaries for Zn- doped CCTO were calculated from the slope for the relationship of ln σ versus 1/T and were found to be 0.605 eV, smaller than undoped CCTO. This synthesis route may be an efficient and convenient approach to limit excessive waste of resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Synthesis of Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication and Deposition of Copper and Copper Oxide Nanoparticles by Laser Ablation in Open Air
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(2), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10020300 - 10 Feb 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
The proximity of the “post-antibiotic era”, where infections and minor injuries could be a cause of death, there are urges to seek an alternative for the cure of infectious diseases. Copper nanoparticles and their huge potential as a bactericidal agent could be a [...] Read more.
The proximity of the “post-antibiotic era”, where infections and minor injuries could be a cause of death, there are urges to seek an alternative for the cure of infectious diseases. Copper nanoparticles and their huge potential as a bactericidal agent could be a solution. In this work, Cu and Cu oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by laser ablation in open air and in argon atmosphere using 532 and 1064 nm radiation generated by nanosecond and picosecond Nd:YVO4 lasers, respectively, to be directly deposited onto Ti substrates. Size, morphology, composition and the crystalline structure of the produced nanoparticles have been studied by the means of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), the energy dispersive spectroscopy of X-rays (EDS), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The UV-VIS absorbance of the thin layer of nanoparticles was also measured, and the antibacterial capacity of the obtained deposits tested against Staphylococcus aureus. The obtained deposits consisted of porous coatings composed of copper and copper oxide nanoparticles interconnected to form chain-like aggregates. The use of the argon atmosphere contributed to reduce significantly the formation of Cu oxide species. The synthesized and deposited nanoparticles exhibited an inhibitory effect upon S. aureus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Synthesis of Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Study of the Structure, Composition, and Electrocatalytic Performance of Hydrogen Evolution in MoSx~2+δ/Mo and MoSx~3+δ Films Obtained by Pulsed Laser Deposition
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(2), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10020201 - 24 Jan 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Systematic and in-depth studies of the structure, composition, and efficiency of hydrogen evolution reactions (HERs) in MoSx films, obtained by means of on- and off-axis pulsed laser deposition (PLD) from a MoS2 target, have been performed. The use of on-axis PLD [...] Read more.
Systematic and in-depth studies of the structure, composition, and efficiency of hydrogen evolution reactions (HERs) in MoSx films, obtained by means of on- and off-axis pulsed laser deposition (PLD) from a MoS2 target, have been performed. The use of on-axis PLD (a standard configuration of PLD) in a buffer of Ar gas, with an optimal pressure, has allowed for the formation of porous hybrid films that consist of Mo particles which support a thin MoSx~2+δ (δ of ~0.7) film. The HER performance of MoSx~2+δ/Mo films increases with increased loading and reaches the highest value at a loading of ~240 μg/cm2. For off-axis PLD, the substrate was located along the axis of expansion of the laser plume and the film was formed via the deposition of the atomic component of the plume, which was scattered in Ar molecules. This made it possible to obtain homogeneous MoSx~3+δ (δ~0.8–1.1) films. The HER performances of these films reached saturation at a loading value of ~163 μg/cm2. The MoSx~3+δ films possessed higher catalytic activities in terms of the turnover frequency of their HERs. However, to achieve the current density of 10 mA/cm2, the lowest over voltages were −162 mV and −150 mV for the films obtained by off- and on-axis PLD, respectively. Measurements of electrochemical characteristics indicated that the differences in the achievable HER performances of these films could be caused by their unique morphological properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Synthesis of Nanomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle
Spectroscopic and Microscopic Analyses of Fe3O4/Au Nanoparticles Obtained by Laser Ablation in Water
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(1), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10010132 - 10 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles constituted of gold and iron oxide were obtained in an aqueous environment by laser ablation of iron and gold targets in two successive steps. Gold nanoparticles are embedded in a mucilaginous matrix of iron oxide, which was identified as magnetite by [...] Read more.
Magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles constituted of gold and iron oxide were obtained in an aqueous environment by laser ablation of iron and gold targets in two successive steps. Gold nanoparticles are embedded in a mucilaginous matrix of iron oxide, which was identified as magnetite by both microscopic and spectroscopic analyses. The plasmonic properties of the obtained colloids, as well as their adsorption capability, were tested by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy using 2,2′-bipyridine as a probe molecule. DFT calculations allowed for obtaining information on the adsorption of the ligand molecules that strongly interact with positively charged surface active sites of the gold nanoparticles, thus providing efficient SERS enhancement. The presence of iron oxide gives the bimetallic colloid new possibilities of adsorption in addition to those inherent to gold nanoparticles, especially regarding organic pollutants and heavy metals, allowing to remove them from the aqueous environment by applying a magnetic field. Moreover, these nanoparticles, thanks to their low toxicity, are potentially useful not only in the field of sensors, but also for biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Synthesis of Nanomaterials)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Laser formation of functional nanomaterials and their modification in supercritical carbon dioxide fluid

Authors: A.O. Rybaltovskii, E.O. Epifanov, A.G. Shubny, Yu.S. Zavorotny, D.N. Khmelenin, A.P. Sviridov, V.I. Yusupov, N.V. Minaev

Affiliation: Institute of Photon Technologies, Federal Scientific Research Center "Crystallography and
photonics" of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federation

Abstract: The action of high-power pulsed laser radiation on materials in a supercritical carbon dioxide fluid (scCO2) allows one the formation of nanoparticles with a complex structure, impregnate of carries with developed surface by nanoparticles, and to impart the materials with new functional properties. The article presents a study of laser interaction with several specific materials in a scCO2 medium, aimed at the development of one-stage "green" synthesis of catalysts, hybrid and photoluminescent nanoparticles. Namely, the synthesis of catalysts consisting of palladium nanoparticles fixed on the surface or embedded into the volume of Al2O3 microparticles, bimetallic plasmonic nanoparticles consisting of gold and silver, and silicon nanoparticles photoluminescent in the red and near-infrared spectral regions, we are demonstrating. Mechanisms for the formation of such materials consistent with experimental data are proposed. The developed approaches and created functional nanomaterials can find application in solving various problems of nanophotonics, nanosensorics, catalysis and biomedicine.

Title: Dielectric and impedance properties of Zn-doped CCTO synthesized via rapid laser sintering of sol-gel derived precursors
Authors: Yanwei Huang; Yu Qiao; Yangyang Li; Jiayang He; Heping Zeng
Affiliation: East China Normal University
Abstract: Zn-doped calcium copper titanate (CCTO) has been successfully synthesized by a rapid laser sintering of sol-gel derived precursors without conventional long-time heat treatment. The microstructure, dielectric properties, impedance spectroscopy have been detailedly investigated. The X-ray diffractometer results show that prepared Zn-doped CCTO is polycrystalline in a cubic structure with high purity. The scanning electron microscope and high resolution transmission electron microscope shows the Zn-doped CCTO has dense microstructure. Comparing with undoped CCTO, the dielectric permittivity increases and dielectric loss decreases, which reveals better dielectric properties. The impedance spectroscopy study shows the grain and grain boundary resistance decrease with rising temperature. The activation energies for the grain boundaries for Zn-doped CCTO were calculated using the slope of lnσ versus 1/T and were found to be 0.605 eV, smaller than undoped CCTO. This synthesizing route may be an efficient and convenient approach to settle excessive waste of resources.

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