Special Issue "Future and Prospects in Nanofluids Research"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Synthesis, Interfaces and Nanostructures".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Patrice Estellé
Website
Guest Editor
Laboratoire de Génie Civil et Génie Mécanique(LGCGM),Université de Rennes 1,Rennes 35238,France
Interests: nanofluids thermophysical properties; nanofluids heat and mass transfer; energy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Alina Adriana Minea
Website
Guest Editor
Facultatea Stiinta si Ingineria Materialelor, Universitatea Tehnica "Gheorghe Asachi" din Iasi, Iasi, Romania
Interests: nanofluids simulation techniques; nanofluids thermophysical properties; energy efficiency; heat and mass transfer numerical approach

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since the early 1990s, nanofluids have received growing attention because of their potential as heat transfer fluids in energy systems due to their enhanced thermal properties induced by the presence of nanoparticles. Nanofluid science is multidisciplinary and involves many complex phenomena and processes that are really motivating and challenging to investigate.

This Special Issue of Nanomaterials aims to publish original high-quality research papers covering the most recent advances as well as comprehensive reviews addressing state-of-the-art topics in the field of nanofluids and related materials.

Also, opinions and papers on open questions that could give critical assessments and future directions in this research field are welcome.

This Special Issue will cover the synthesis, preparation, and characterization of both nanomaterials and associated nanofluids, focusing on the next-generation applications of nanomaterials with outstanding performances in terms of stability, thermophysical properties, and heat transfer behavior relevant for industrial applications. The development of new theoretical and physical models, as well as simulations closer to practical situations, are also expected.

Topics to be covered by this Special Issue include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Nanomaterials and Nanofluids preparation and characterization (nanoparticles, nanoPCM, nanofluids, nanosalts, ionanofluids, etc.)
  • Measurements and theoretical development of Nanofluid properties
  • Measurements and theoretical development of Nanofluid heat transfer
  • Experimental and theoretical analysis on nanofluid transport in porous media
  • Measurements and theoretical development of Nanoparticle-enhanced phase change materials
  • Numerical simulations relevant for potential applications
  • New numerical models for estimation of nanofluids heat transfer behavior
  • New innovative areas of nanofluid applications
  • Critical assessments and future directions in Nanofluids research

In advance, we would like to gratefully acknowledge the authors and reviewers who will participate to the elaboration of this Special Issue and that will contribute to the development of nanofluid research.

Prof. Dr. Patrice Estellé
Prof. Dr. Alina Adriana Minea
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nanoparticles, nanofluids, ionanofluids, molten salts, nano-PCM
  • Experimental characterizations
  • Theoretical and experimental models
  • Heat tranfer and energy enhancement
  • Simulations
  • New areas for nanofluid applications

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Modelling Thermal Conduction in Nanoparticle Aggregates in the Presence of Surfactants
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(11), 2288; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10112288 - 19 Nov 2020
Abstract
Many theoretical and experimental studies have shown that the addition of nanoparticles into conventional fluids may generate nanofluids with significantly improved heat transfer properties. In the present work, the effect of nanoparticle aggregation on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids is studied, considering also [...] Read more.
Many theoretical and experimental studies have shown that the addition of nanoparticles into conventional fluids may generate nanofluids with significantly improved heat transfer properties. In the present work, the effect of nanoparticle aggregation on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids is studied, considering also the effect of surfactants that are typically added to stabilise the nanofluid. A method for simulating aggregate formation is developed here that allows tailoring of the fractal dimension and the number density of the nanoparticles to desired values. The method is shown to be computationally simple and fast. Data that are extracted from electron microscope images are compared with simulation results regarding surface porosity and the autocorrelation function. The surfactants are modelled as a layer around the particles, and the effective thermal conductivity is calculated with a meshless numerical technique. Significant increase in conductivity is observed for small values of the fractal dimension and for large number density of particles in the aggregate. The simulations are in good agreement with experimental results. It is also concluded that prediction of the conductivity of such nanofluids requires the knowledge of the type and the amount of the surfactant added. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future and Prospects in Nanofluids Research)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Experimental Study on the Rheological Properties and Thermal Conductivity of Halloysite Nanofluids
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1834; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091834 - 14 Sep 2020
Abstract
Nanofluids obtained from halloysite and de-ionized water (DI) were prepared by using surfactants and changing pH for heat-transfer applications. The halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) nanofluids were studied for several volume fractions (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 vol%) and temperatures (20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 [...] Read more.
Nanofluids obtained from halloysite and de-ionized water (DI) were prepared by using surfactants and changing pH for heat-transfer applications. The halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) nanofluids were studied for several volume fractions (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 vol%) and temperatures (20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 °C). The properties of HNTs were studied with a scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA). The stability of the nanofluids was proven by zeta potentials measurements and visual observation. With surfactants, the HNT nanofluids had the highest thermal conductivity increment of 18.30% for 1.5 vol% concentration in comparison with the base fluid. The thermal conductivity enhancement of nanofluids containing surfactant was slightly higher than nanofluids with pH = 12. The prepared nanofluids were Newtonian. The viscosity enhancements of the nanofluid were 11% and 12.8% at 30 °C for 0.5% volume concentration with surfactants and at pH = 12, respectively. Empirical correlations of viscosity and thermal conductivity for these nanofluids were proposed for practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future and Prospects in Nanofluids Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Few-Layer Graphene-Based Nanofluids with Enhanced Thermal Conductivity
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(7), 1258; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10071258 - 28 Jun 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
High-quality graphene is an especially promising carbon nanomaterial for developing nanofluids for enhancing heat transfer in fluid circulation systems. We report a complete study on few layer graphene (FLG) based nanofluids, including FLG synthesis, FLG-based nanofluid preparation, and their thermal conductivity. The FLG [...] Read more.
High-quality graphene is an especially promising carbon nanomaterial for developing nanofluids for enhancing heat transfer in fluid circulation systems. We report a complete study on few layer graphene (FLG) based nanofluids, including FLG synthesis, FLG-based nanofluid preparation, and their thermal conductivity. The FLG sample is synthesized by an original mechanical exfoliation method. The morphological and structural characterization are investigated by both scanning and transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The chosen two-step method involves the use of thee nonionic surfactants (Triton X-100, Pluronic® P123, and Gum Arabic), a commercial mixture of water and propylene glycol and a mass content in FLG from 0.05 to 0.5%. The thermal conductivity measurements of the three FLG-based nanofluid series are carried out in the temperature range 283.15–323.15 K by the transient hot-wire method. From a modeling analysis of the nanofluid thermal conductivity behavior, it is finally shown that synergetic effects of FLG nanosheet size and thermal resistance at the FLG interface both have significant impact on the evidenced thermal conductivity enhancement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future and Prospects in Nanofluids Research)
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Open AccessArticle
A Study of a PID Controller Used in a Micro-Electrical Discharge Machining System to Prepare TiO2 Nanocolloids
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(6), 1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10061044 - 29 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study developed a micro-electrical discharge machining (micro-EDM) system for producing TiO2 nanocolloids. When a proportional–integral–derivative controller designed using the Ziegler–Nichols method was adopted to control the interelectrode gap, TiO2 nanocolloids were obtained from spark discharges generated between two titanium wires [...] Read more.
This study developed a micro-electrical discharge machining (micro-EDM) system for producing TiO2 nanocolloids. When a proportional–integral–derivative controller designed using the Ziegler–Nichols method was adopted to control the interelectrode gap, TiO2 nanocolloids were obtained from spark discharges generated between two titanium wires immersed in deionized water. For a pulse on time–off time of 40–40 μs and a colloid production time of 100 min, TiO2 nanocolloids were produced that had an absorbance of 1.511 at a wavelength of 245 nm and a ζ potential of −47.2 mV. They had an average particle diameter of 137.2 nm, and 64.2% of particles were smaller than 91.28 nm. The minimum particles were spherical. The characteristics of colloids confirmed that the micro-EDM system can produce TiO2 nanocolloids with excellent suspension stability. The colloid production method proposed in this study has the advantages of low equipment cost and no dust diffusion in the process environment. These advantages can improve the competitiveness of the electric spark discharge method for high-quality TiO2 nanoparticle production. The colloids produced in this study did not contain elements other than titanium and oxygen, and they may prevent secondary environmental pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future and Prospects in Nanofluids Research)
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Open AccessArticle
3D Nanoparticle Tracking Inside the Silver Nanofluid
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(2), 397; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10020397 - 24 Feb 2020
Abstract
Movement of nanoparticle was investigated at the vicinity of silver nanofluid by using a microscope equipped with 100X lens. It was observed that silver nanoparticles were constantly moving inside the nanofluid for the first time. To explore the silver nanoparticle movement, the silver [...] Read more.
Movement of nanoparticle was investigated at the vicinity of silver nanofluid by using a microscope equipped with 100X lens. It was observed that silver nanoparticles were constantly moving inside the nanofluid for the first time. To explore the silver nanoparticle movement, the silver nanofluid was mixed with fluorescent nanoparticles. The coated nanoparticles were tracked three-dimensionally using a Delta Vision Elite inverted optical microscope. It was found that Marangoni flow was a possible reason of the nanoparticle movement which was generated by a gradient of the surface tension at the vicinity of the triple line. A gradient of the surface tension was formed by the segregation of the surfactant from the base liquid at the vicinity of the triple line. The surfactant was separated from the base liquid inside the triple region, since they have different affinities for the substrate. It was also shown that ring phenomenon took place when nanoparticle movement was weak or negligible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future and Prospects in Nanofluids Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Electrical Conductivity and Dielectric Properties of Ethylene Glycol-Based Nanofluids Containing Silicon Oxide–Lignin Hybrid Particles
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(7), 1008; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9071008 - 12 Jul 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
This paper presents results of experimental investigation into dielectric properties of silicon oxide lignin (SiO2-L) particles dispersed with various mass fractions in ethylene glycol (EG). Measurements were conducted at a controlled temperature, which was changed from 298.15 to 333.15 K with [...] Read more.
This paper presents results of experimental investigation into dielectric properties of silicon oxide lignin (SiO2-L) particles dispersed with various mass fractions in ethylene glycol (EG). Measurements were conducted at a controlled temperature, which was changed from 298.15 to 333.15 K with an accuracy of 0.5 and 0.2 K for dielectric properties and direct current (DC) electrical conductivity, respectively. Dielectric properties were measured with a broadband dielectric spectroscopy device in a frequency range from 0.1 to 1 MHz, while DC conductivity was investigated using a conductivity meter MultiLine 3410 working with LR925/01 conductivity probe. Obtained results indicate that addition of even a small amount of SiO2-L nanoparticles to ethylene glycol cause a significant increase in permittivity and alternating current (AC) conductivity as well as DC conductivity, while relaxation time decrease. Additionally, both measurement methods of electrical conductivity are in good agreement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future and Prospects in Nanofluids Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Convection Heat Transfer Analysis of a Nano-Enhanced Industrial Coolant
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020267 - 15 Feb 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Convection heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops of four functionalized graphene nanoplatelet nanofluids based on the commercial coolant Havoline® XLC Pre-mixed 50/50 were experimentally determined to assess its thermal performance. The potential heat transfer enhancement produced by nanofluids could play an important [...] Read more.
Convection heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops of four functionalized graphene nanoplatelet nanofluids based on the commercial coolant Havoline® XLC Pre-mixed 50/50 were experimentally determined to assess its thermal performance. The potential heat transfer enhancement produced by nanofluids could play an important role in increasing the efficiency of cooling systems. Particularly in wind power, the increasing size of the wind turbines, up to 10 MW nowadays, requires sophisticated liquid cooling systems to keep the nominal temperature conditions and protect the components from temperature degradation and hazardous environment in off-shore wind parks. The effect of nanoadditive loading, temperature and Reynolds number in convection heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops is discussed. A dimensionless analysis of the results is carried out and empirical correlations for the Nusselt number and Darcy friction factor are proposed. A maximum enhancement in the convection heat transfer coefficient of 7% was found for the nanofluid with nanoadditive loading of 0.25 wt %. Contrarily, no enhancement was found for the nanofluids of higher functionalized graphene nanoplatelet mass fraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future and Prospects in Nanofluids Research)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
A Review on Heat Transfer of Nanofluids by Applied Electric Field or Magnetic Field
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(12), 2386; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10122386 (registering DOI) - 29 Nov 2020
Abstract
Nanofluids are considered to be a next-generation heat transfer medium due to their excellent thermal performance. To investigate the effect of electric fields and magnetic fields on heat transfer of nanofluids, this paper analyzes the mechanism of thermal conductivity enhancement of nanofluids, the [...] Read more.
Nanofluids are considered to be a next-generation heat transfer medium due to their excellent thermal performance. To investigate the effect of electric fields and magnetic fields on heat transfer of nanofluids, this paper analyzes the mechanism of thermal conductivity enhancement of nanofluids, the chaotic convection and the heat transfer enhancement of nanofluids in the presence of an applied electric field or magnetic field through the method of literature review. The studies we searched showed that applied electric field and magnetic field can significantly affect the heat transfer performance of nanofluids, although there are still many different opinions about the effect and mechanism of heat transfer. In a word, this review is supposed to be useful for the researchers who want to understand the research state of heat transfer of nanofluids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future and Prospects in Nanofluids Research)
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Open AccessReview
Carbon Nanomaterial-Based Nanofluids for Direct Thermal Solar Absorption
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(6), 1199; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10061199 - 19 Jun 2020
Abstract
Recently, many scientists have been making remarkable efforts to enhance the efficiency of direct solar thermal absorption collectors that depends on working fluids. There are a number of heat transfer fluids being investigated and developed. Among these fluids, carbon nanomaterial-based nanofluids have become [...] Read more.
Recently, many scientists have been making remarkable efforts to enhance the efficiency of direct solar thermal absorption collectors that depends on working fluids. There are a number of heat transfer fluids being investigated and developed. Among these fluids, carbon nanomaterial-based nanofluids have become the candidates with the most potential by the heat absorbing and transfer properties of the carbon nanomaterials. This paper provides an overview of the current achievements in preparing and exploiting carbon nanomaterial-based nanofluids to direct thermal solar absorption. In addition, a brief discussion of challenges and recommendations for future work is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future and Prospects in Nanofluids Research)
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Open AccessReview
A Review on Electrical Conductivity of Nanoparticle-Enhanced Fluids
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(11), 1592; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9111592 - 09 Nov 2019
Cited by 12
Abstract
This review discusses exclusively the recent research on electrical conductivity of nanofluids, correlations and mechanisms and aims to make an important step to fully understand the nanofluids behavior. Research on nanoparticle-enhanced fluids’ electrical conductivity is at its beginning at this moment and the [...] Read more.
This review discusses exclusively the recent research on electrical conductivity of nanofluids, correlations and mechanisms and aims to make an important step to fully understand the nanofluids behavior. Research on nanoparticle-enhanced fluids’ electrical conductivity is at its beginning at this moment and the augmentation mechanisms are not fully understood. Basically, the mechanisms for increasing the electrical conductivity are described as electric double layer influence and increased particles’ conductance. Another idea that has resulted from this review is that the stability of nanofluids can be described with the help of electrical conductivity tests, but more coordinated research is needed. The purpose of this article is not only to describe the aforementioned studies, but also to fully understand nanofluids’ behavior, and to assess and relate several experimental results on electrical conductivity. Concluding, this analysis has shown that a lot of research work is needed in the field of nanofluids’ electrical characterization and specific applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future and Prospects in Nanofluids Research)
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