Special Issue "Selected papers of the "1st International Conference on Nanofluids (ICNf)""

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Thermal Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Patrice Estellé
Website
Guest Editor
Laboratoire de Génie Civil et Génie Mécanique(LGCGM),Université de Rennes 1,Rennes 35238,France
Interests: nanofluids thermophysical properties; nanofluids heat and mass transfer; energy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Leonor Hernandez
Website
Guest Editor
Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica y Construcción, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón de la Plana 12071, Spain
Chair of Nanouptake and ICNf 2019
Interests: solar nanofluids; nanofluid characterisation; nanofluid solar absorption; heat transfer and storage properties
Dr. Matthias H. Buschmann
Website
Guest Editor
Institut für Luft- und Kältetechnik gGmbH Dresden, 01309 Dresden, Germany
Vice-Chair of ICNf 2019
Interests: nanofluid heat transfer; modelling of nanofluid flow; thermophysical properties

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 1st International Conference on Nanofluids (ICNf) coupled with the 2nd European Symposium on Nanofluids (ESNf) will be held on 26–28 June 2019 in Castellon, Spain. This scientific event is organized under the auspices of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action—NANOUPTAKE (CA15119, http://www.nanouptake.eu). This conference provides platforms for global collaboration and the exchange of knowledge between researchers and engineers working on nanofluids and related areas as well as applications in energy enhancement and systems, and it will give an overview of the current research findings, developments and achievements in these fields.

Details of these conferences are provided on the conference website, http://www.icnf2019.com.

Note that the deadline for conference abstract submission is 31 January 2019 and both informations and template can be found here

http://www.icnf2019.com/index.php/papers/paper-guidelines

Registration is available for you via:

http://www.icnf2019.com/index.php/registration/registrationen

The focuses of ICNf 2019 include the production and characterisation of nanofluids and liquid-based nanocomposites, nanofluid-based heat transfer and storage of thermal energy, as well as industrial applications. Representatives of related industries are invited to ICNf 2019 to enable direct knowledge transfer from science to industry. ICNf 2019 covers nanofluid aspects ranging in a wide field from basic research to real world energy industrial applications.

All accepted abstracts will be published in the conference proceedings. Authors are encouraged to send their work to Energies (IF 2.676) for a Special Issue publication. It is mandatory that the work should be presented in ICNf 2019 by one registered author. Original high-quality papers related to the conference topics are especially solicited and will be considered for publication.

Award(s) offered by scientific committee and conference organizer may be considered for the best papers and presentations to cover the Article Processing Charge (APC).

The topics to be covered at the conference and in this Special Issue include the following:

  • Nanofluid materials (nanoparticles, nanoPCM, nanofluids, nanosalts, ionanofluids, etc.)
  • Nanofluid preparation and characterization methods (stability, physical and chemical effects, agglomeration, etc.)
  • Nanofluid properties (thermophysical, optical, and magnetic properties)
  • Heating, cooling, and refrigeration
  • Phase change-based heat transfer (boiling, surface coating, heat pipes, etc.)
  • Storage of thermal energy
  • Solar energy applications (specific black nanofluids, volumetric solar collectors, etc.)
  • Numerical simulations on the microscopic and macroscopic levels
  • Industrial applications
  • Health, safety, and environmental issues

This publication is based upon work from COST Action Nanouptake, supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology). COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) is a funding agency for research and innovation networks. Our Actions help connect research initiatives across Europe and enable scientists to grow their ideas by sharing them with their peers. This boosts their research, career and innovation. www.cost.eu

text

Dr. Patrice Estellé
Prof. Leonor Hernandez
Dr. Matthias H. Buschmann
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue of the 1st International Conference on Nanofluids (ICNf19)
Energies 2020, 13(9), 2290; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13092290 - 06 May 2020
Abstract
This editorial note is dedicated to the 1st International Conference on Nanofluids (ICNf19), which was organized under the auspices of Nanouptake COST Action in June 2019, in Castelló (Spain). After a brief report about the conference issues, the successful selected contributions to this [...] Read more.
This editorial note is dedicated to the 1st International Conference on Nanofluids (ICNf19), which was organized under the auspices of Nanouptake COST Action in June 2019, in Castelló (Spain). After a brief report about the conference issues, the successful selected contributions to this Special Issue of Energies about the ICNf19 are introduced. Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Entransy Dissipation Analysis and New Irreversibility Dimension Ratio of Nanofluid Flow Through Adaptive Heating Elements
Energies 2020, 13(1), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13010114 - 25 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
A hollow electric heating cylinder is inserted inside a thermo-insulating cylindrical body of larger diameter, together representing a single cylindrical heating element. Three cylindrical heating elements, with an independent electrical source, are arranged alternately one after the other to form a heating duct. [...] Read more.
A hollow electric heating cylinder is inserted inside a thermo-insulating cylindrical body of larger diameter, together representing a single cylindrical heating element. Three cylindrical heating elements, with an independent electrical source, are arranged alternately one after the other to form a heating duct. The internal diameters of the hollow heating cylinders are different, and the cylinders are arranged from the largest to the smallest in the nanofluid’s flow direction. Through these hollow heating cylinders passes nanofluid, which is thereby heated. The material of the hollow heating cylinders is a PTC (positive temperature coefficient) heating source, which allows maintaining approximately constant temperatures of the cylinders’ surfaces. The analytical analysis used three temperatures of the hollow heating cylinders of 400 K, 500 K, and 600 K. The temperatures of the heating cylinders are varied for each of the three cylindrical heating elements. In the same arrangement, the inner diameters of the hollow cylinders are set to 15 mm, 11 mm, and 7 mm in the nanofluid’s flow direction. The basis of the analytical model is the entransy flow dissipation rate. Furthermore, a new dimension irreversibility ratio is introduced as the ratio between entransy flow dissipation and thermal-generated entropy. This paper provides a suitable basis for optimizing the geometric and process parameters of cylindrical heating elements. An optimization criterion can be maximizing the new dimensionless irreversibility ratio, which implies minimizing thermal entropy and maximizing entransy flow dissipation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Computational Study of Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of EG-Si3N4 Nanofluid in Laminar Flow in a Pipe in Forced Convection Regime
Energies 2020, 13(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13010074 - 22 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Laminar flow of ethylene glycol-based silicon nitride (EG-Si3N4) nanofluid in a smooth horizontal pipe subjected to forced heat convection with constant wall heat flux is computationally modeled and analyzed. Heat transfer is evaluated in terms of Nusselt number (Nu) [...] Read more.
Laminar flow of ethylene glycol-based silicon nitride (EG-Si3N4) nanofluid in a smooth horizontal pipe subjected to forced heat convection with constant wall heat flux is computationally modeled and analyzed. Heat transfer is evaluated in terms of Nusselt number (Nu) and heat transfer coefficient for various volume fractions of Si3N4 nanoparticles in the base fluid and different laminar flow rates. The thermophysical properties of the EG-Si3N4 nanofluid are taken from a recently published experimental study. Computational modelling and simulation are performed using open-source software utilizing finite volume numerical methodology. The nanofluid exhibits non-Newtonian rheology and it is modelled as a homogeneous single-phase mixture, the properties of which are determined by the nanoparticle volume fraction. The existing features of the software to simulate single-phase flow are extended by implementing the energy transport coupled to the fluid flow and the interaction of the fluid flow with the surrounding pipe wall via the applied wall heat flux. In addition, the functional dependencies of the thermophysical properties of the nanofluid on the volume fraction of nanoparticles are implemented in the software, while the non-Newtonian rheological behavior of the nanofluid under consideration is also taken into account. The obtained results from the numerical simulations show very good predicting capabilities of the implemented computational model for the laminar flow coupled to the forced convection heat transfer. Moreover, the analysis of the computational results for the nanofluid reflects the increase of heat transfer of the EG-Si3N4 nanofluid in comparison to the EG for all the considered nanoparticle volume fractions and flow rates, indicating promising features of this nanofluid in heat transfer applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Stability and Thermal Properties Study of Metal Chalcogenide-Based Nanofluids for Concentrating Solar Power
Energies 2019, 12(24), 4632; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12244632 - 06 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Nanofluids are colloidal suspensions of nanomaterials in a fluid which exhibit enhanced thermophysical properties compared to conventional fluids. The addition of nanomaterials to a fluid can increase the thermal conductivity, isobaric-specific heat, diffusivity, and the convective heat transfer coefficient of the original fluid. [...] Read more.
Nanofluids are colloidal suspensions of nanomaterials in a fluid which exhibit enhanced thermophysical properties compared to conventional fluids. The addition of nanomaterials to a fluid can increase the thermal conductivity, isobaric-specific heat, diffusivity, and the convective heat transfer coefficient of the original fluid. For this reason, nanofluids have been studied over the last decades in many fields such as biomedicine, industrial cooling, nuclear reactors, and also in solar thermal applications. In this paper, we report the preparation and characterization of nanofluids based on one-dimensional MoS2 and WS2 nanosheets to improve the thermal properties of the heat transfer fluid currently used in concentrating solar plants (CSP). A comparative study of both types of nanofluids was performed for explaining the influence of nanostructure morphologies on nanofluid stability and thermal properties. The nanofluids prepared in this work present a high stability over time and thermal conductivity enhancements of up to 46% for MoS2-based nanofluid and up to 35% for WS2-based nanofluid. These results led to an increase in the efficiency of the solar collectors of 21.3% and 16.8% when the nanofluids based on MoS2 nanowires or WS2 nanosheets were used instead of the typical thermal oil. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Prediction of Contact Angle of Nanofluids by Single-Phase Approaches
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4558; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234558 - 29 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Wettability is the ability of the liquid to contact with the solid surface at the surrounding fluid and its degree is defined by contact angle (CA), which is calculated with balance between adhesive and cohesive forces on droplet surface. Thermophysical properties of the [...] Read more.
Wettability is the ability of the liquid to contact with the solid surface at the surrounding fluid and its degree is defined by contact angle (CA), which is calculated with balance between adhesive and cohesive forces on droplet surface. Thermophysical properties of the droplet, the forces acting on the droplet, atmosphere surrounding the droplet and the substrate surface are the main parameters affecting on CA. With nanofluids (NF), nanoparticle concentration and size and shape can modify the contact angle and thus wettability. This study investigates the validity of single-phase CA correlations for several nanofluids with different types of nanoparticles dispersed in water. Geometrical parameters of sessile droplet (height of the droplet, wetting radius and radius of curvature at the apex) are used in the tested correlations, which are based on force balance acting on the droplet surface, energy balance, spherical dome approach and empirical expression, respectively. It is shown that single-phase models can be expressed in terms of Bond number, the non-dimensional droplet volume and two geometrical similarity simplexes. It is demonstrated that they can be used successfully to predict CA of dilute nanofluids’ at ambient conditions. Besides evaluation of CA, droplet shape is also well predicted for all nanofluid samples with ±5% error. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Magnetic Field Effect on Thermal, Dielectric, and Viscous Properties of a Transformer Oil-Based Magnetic Nanofluid
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4532; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234532 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Progress in electrical engineering puts a greater demand on the cooling and insulating properties of liquid media, such as transformer oils. To enhance their performance, researchers develop various nanofluids based on transformer oils. In this study, we focus on novel commercial transformer oil [...] Read more.
Progress in electrical engineering puts a greater demand on the cooling and insulating properties of liquid media, such as transformer oils. To enhance their performance, researchers develop various nanofluids based on transformer oils. In this study, we focus on novel commercial transformer oil and a magnetic nanofluid containing iron oxide nanoparticles. Three key properties are experimentally investigated in this paper. Thermal conductivity was studied by a transient plane source method dependent on the magnetic volume fraction and external magnetic field. It is shown that the classical effective medium theory, such as the Maxwell model, fails to explain the obtained results. We highlight the importance of the magnetic field distribution and the location of the thermal conductivity sensor in the analysis of the anisotropic thermal conductivity. Dielectric permittivity of the magnetic nanofluid, dependent on electric field frequency and magnetic volume fraction, was measured by an LCR meter. The measurements were carried out in thin sample cells yielding unusual magneto-dielectric anisotropy, which was dependent on the magnetic volume fraction. Finally, the viscosity of the studied magnetic fluid was experimentally studied by means of a rheometer with a magneto-rheological device. The measurements proved the magneto-viscous effect, which intensifies with increasing magnetic volume fraction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Wettability Control for Correct Thermophysical Properties Determination of Molten Salts and Their Nanofluids
Energies 2019, 12(19), 3765; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12193765 - 02 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Proper recording of thermophysical properties for molten salts (MSs) and molten salts based nanofluids (MSBNs) is of paramount importance for the thermal energy storage (TES) technology at concentrated solar power (CSP) plants. However, it is recognized by scientific and industrial communities to be [...] Read more.
Proper recording of thermophysical properties for molten salts (MSs) and molten salts based nanofluids (MSBNs) is of paramount importance for the thermal energy storage (TES) technology at concentrated solar power (CSP) plants. However, it is recognized by scientific and industrial communities to be non-trivial, because of molten salts creeping (scaling) inside a measuring crucible or a sample container. Here two strategies are proposed to solve the creeping problem of MSs and MSBNs for the benefit of such techniques as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and laser flash apparatus (LFA). The first strategy is the use of crucibles with rough inner surface. It was found that only nanoscale roughness solves the creeping problem, while micron-scale roughness does not affect the wetting phenomena considerably. The second strategy is the use of crucible made of or coated with a low-surface energy material. Both strategies resulted in contact angle of molten salt higher than 90° and as a result, repeatable measurements in correspondence to the literature data. The proposed methods can be used for other characterization techniques where the creeping of molten salts brings the uncertainty or/and unrepeatability of the measurements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Viscosity, Surface Tension and Wetting Behavior Studies of Paraffin–in–Water Nano–Emulsions
Energies 2019, 12(17), 3334; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12173334 - 29 Aug 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
This work analyzes the dynamic viscosity, surface tension and wetting behavior of phase change material nano–emulsions (PCMEs) formulated at dispersed phase concentrations of 2, 4 and 10 wt.%. Paraffin–in–water samples were produced using a solvent–assisted route, starting from RT21HC technical grade paraffin with [...] Read more.
This work analyzes the dynamic viscosity, surface tension and wetting behavior of phase change material nano–emulsions (PCMEs) formulated at dispersed phase concentrations of 2, 4 and 10 wt.%. Paraffin–in–water samples were produced using a solvent–assisted route, starting from RT21HC technical grade paraffin with a nominal melting point at ~293–294 K. In order to evaluate the possible effect of paraffinic nucleating agents on those three properties, a nano–emulsion with 3.6% of RT21HC and 0.4% of RT55 (a paraffin wax with melting temperature at ~328 K) was also investigated. Dynamic viscosity strongly rose with increasing dispersed phase concentration, showing a maximum increase of 151% for the sample containing 10 wt.% of paraffin at 278 K. For that same nano–emulsion, a melting temperature of ~292.4 K and a recrystallization temperature of ~283.7 K (which agree with previous calorimetric results of that emulsion) were determined from rheological temperature sweeps. Nano–emulsions exhibited surface tensions considerably lower than those of water. Nevertheless, at some concentrations and temperatures, PCME values are slightly higher than surface tensions obtained for the corresponding water+SDS mixtures used to produce the nano–emulsions. This may be attributed to the fact that a portion of the surfactant is taking part of the interface between dispersed and continuous phase. Finally, although RT21HC–emulsions exhibited contact angles considerably inferior than those of distilled water, PCME sessile droplets did not rapidly spread as it happened for water+SDS with similar surfactant contents or for bulk–RT21HC. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Towards the Correct Measurement of Thermal Conductivity of Ionic Melts and Nanofluids
Energies 2020, 13(1), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13010099 - 24 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Thermophysical properties of engineering fluids have proven in the past to be essential for the design of physical and chemical processing and reaction equipment in the chemical, metallurgical, and allied industries, as they influence directly the design parameters and performance of plant units [...] Read more.
Thermophysical properties of engineering fluids have proven in the past to be essential for the design of physical and chemical processing and reaction equipment in the chemical, metallurgical, and allied industries, as they influence directly the design parameters and performance of plant units in the of, for example, heat exchangers, distillation columns, phase separation, and reactors. In the energy field, the search for the optimization of existing and alternative fuels, either using neutral or ionic fluids, is an actual research and application topic, both for new applications and the sustainable development of old technologies. One of the most important drawbacks in the industrial use of thermophysical property data is the common discrepancies in available data, measured with different methods, different samples, and questionable quality assessment. Measuring accurately the thermal conductivity of fluids has been a very successful task since the late 1970s due to the efforts of several schools in Europe, Japan, and the United States. However, the application of the most accurate techniques to several systems with technological importance, like ionic liquids, nanofluids, and molten salts, has not been made in the last ten years in a correct fashion, generating highly inaccurate data, which do not reflect the real physical situation. It is the purpose of this paper to review critically the best available techniques for the measurement of thermal conductivity of fluids, with special emphasis on transient methods and their application to ionic liquids, nanofluids, and molten salts. Full article
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Other

Open AccessConference Report
From Thermal to Electroactive Graphene Nanofluids
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4545; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234545 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Here, we describe selected work on the development and study of nanofluids based on graphene and reduced graphene oxide both in aqueous and organic electrolytes. A thorough study of thermal properties of graphene in amide organic solvents (N,N-dimethylformamide, N,N-dimethylacetamide, and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone) showed a [...] Read more.
Here, we describe selected work on the development and study of nanofluids based on graphene and reduced graphene oxide both in aqueous and organic electrolytes. A thorough study of thermal properties of graphene in amide organic solvents (N,N-dimethylformamide, N,N-dimethylacetamide, and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone) showed a substantial increase of thermal conductivity and specific heat upon graphene integration in those solvents. In addition to these thermal studies, our group has also pioneered a distinct line of work on electroactive nanofluids for energy storage. In this case, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanofluids in aqueous electrolytes were studied and characterized by cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge cycles (i.e., in new flow cells). In addition, hybrid configurations (both hybrid nanofluid materials and hybrid cells combining faradaic and capacitive activities) were studied and are summarized here. Full article
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