Special Issue "Electronic and Thermal Properties of Graphene"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Kyong Yop Rhee

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Yongin-si, , Gyeonggi-do, Korea
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +82 31 201 2565
Fax: +82 31 202 6693
Interests: surface treatment; bonding; composites materials; fracture; corrosion

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Graphene is a revolutionary 2D material that has the potential to change the world with unlimited potential for incorporation in any industry. Having exceptional conductivity towards both heat and electricity, it is a promising choice for next-generation electronics. It has always remained under accelerated advancements for further improvements in the potential applications of graphene-based devices. These include, to name a few, bandgap tuning, surface functionalization, and doping; they have opened a whole new gateway towards long-lasting batteries, ultra-fast CPUs, COMS image sensors, etc. While the theoretical opportunities are endless, practical capabilities are yet to be resolved. Accordingly, we are bringing a Special Issue of this journal to encourage researchers worldwide and providing them with a platform to publish their novel studies and a chance to submit their valuable reviews dedicated to the latest developments utilizing graphene in smart devices. We hope to receive your valuable input to make this issue successful.

Prof. Kyong Yop Rhee
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • graphene-based devices
  • supercapacitors
  • thermal and electrical interface
  • thermal and electrical conductivity
  • self-heating of graphene
  • batteries
  • thermal and electrical properties
  • device fabrication and modeling
  • surface modification and characterization
  • multifunctional graphene-based materials
  • next- generation electronics

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Transparent Electrothermal Heaters Based on Vertically-Oriented Graphene Glass Hybrid Materials
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040558
Received: 24 February 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 29 March 2019 / Published: 6 April 2019
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Abstract
Transparent heating devices are widely used in daily life-related applications that can be achieved by various heating materials with suitable resistances. Herein, high-performance vertically-oriented graphene (VG) films are directly grown on soda-lime glass by a radio-frequency (rf) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method, [...] Read more.
Transparent heating devices are widely used in daily life-related applications that can be achieved by various heating materials with suitable resistances. Herein, high-performance vertically-oriented graphene (VG) films are directly grown on soda-lime glass by a radio-frequency (rf) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method, giving reasonable resistances for electrothermal heating. The optical and electrical properties of VG films are found to be tunable by optimizing the growth parameters such as growth time, carrier gas flow, etc. The electrothermal performances of the derived materials with different resistances are thus studied systematically. Specifically, the VG film on glass with a transmittance of ~73% at 550 nm and a sheet resistance of ~3.9 KΩ/□ is fabricated into a heating device, presenting a saturated temperature up to 55 °C by applying 80 V for 3 min. The VG film on the glass at a transmittance of ~43% and a sheet resistance of 0.76 KΩ/□ exhibits a highly steady temperature increase up to ~108 °C with a maximum heating rate of ~2.6 °C/s under a voltage of 60 V. Briefly, the tunable sheet resistance, good adhesion of VG to the growth substrate, relative high heating efficiency, and large heating temperature range make VG films on glass decent candidates for electrothermal related applications in defrosting and defogging devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic and Thermal Properties of Graphene)
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Open AccessArticle Facile Preparation and Characterization of Carbon Fibers with Core-Shell Structure from Graphene-Dispersed Isotropic Pitch Compounds
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040521
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 20 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 3 April 2019
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Abstract
In this study, isotropic pitch-based carbon fibers were prepared from a mixture of petroleum residue and graphene nanoplatelets with different contents. The softening point and synthetic yield of synthesized isotropic pitches were analyzed and compared to characterize the nature of the pitches. The [...] Read more.
In this study, isotropic pitch-based carbon fibers were prepared from a mixture of petroleum residue and graphene nanoplatelets with different contents. The softening point and synthetic yield of synthesized isotropic pitches were analyzed and compared to characterize the nature of the pitches. The surface and thermal characteristics of the fibers were observed using scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. From the results, it was observed that the prepared carbon fibers had an interesting core-shell structure. In the TGA analysis with air, the carbon fiber having 0.1 wt.% of graphene showed a higher residue yield than that of the sample having 1.0 wt.% of graphene. This result can be explained due to the graphene being placed on the surface region of the carbon fibers and directly helping to increase the surface area of the carbon fibers, resulting in rapid oxidation due to the enhanced contact area with oxygen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic and Thermal Properties of Graphene)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Varying the Ratio of Carbon Black to Vapor-Grown Carbon Fibers in the Separator on the Performance of Li–S Batteries
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030436
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
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Abstract
Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries are expected to be very useful for next-generation transportation and grid storage because of their high energy density and low cost. However, their low active material utilization and poor cycle life limit their practical application. The use of a carbon-coated [...] Read more.
Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries are expected to be very useful for next-generation transportation and grid storage because of their high energy density and low cost. However, their low active material utilization and poor cycle life limit their practical application. The use of a carbon-coated separator in these batteries serves to inhibit the migration of the lithium polysulfide intermediate and increases the recyclability. We report the extent to which the electrochemical performance of Li–S battery systems depends on the characteristics of the carbon coating of the separator. Carbon-coated separators containing different ratios of carbon black (Super-P) and vapor-grown carbon fibers (VGCFs) were prepared and evaluated in Li–S batteries. The results showed that larger amounts of Super-P on the carbon-coated separator enhanced the electrochemical performance of Li–S batteries; for instance, the pure Super-P coating exhibited the highest discharge capacity (602.1 mAh g−1 at 150 cycles) with a Coulombic efficiency exceeding 95%. Furthermore, the separators with the pure Super-P coating had a smaller pore structure, and hence, limited polysulfide migration, compared to separators containing Super-P/VGCF mixtures. These results indicate that it is necessary to control the porosity of the porous membrane to control the movement of the lithium polysulfide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic and Thermal Properties of Graphene)
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Open AccessArticle Graphene Nanoplatelet-Reinforced Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/High Density Polyethylene Blend-Based Nanocomposites with Enhanced Thermal and Electrical Properties
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030361
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 21 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
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Abstract
In this study, a graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) was used as a reinforcing filler to prepare poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/high density polyethylene (HDPE) blend-based nanocomposites through a melt mixing method. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the GNP was mainly distributed within the PVDF matrix phase. [...] Read more.
In this study, a graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) was used as a reinforcing filler to prepare poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/high density polyethylene (HDPE) blend-based nanocomposites through a melt mixing method. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the GNP was mainly distributed within the PVDF matrix phase. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that PVDF and HDPE retained their crystal structure in the blend and composites. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the addition of GNP enhanced the thermal stability of the blend, which was more evident in a nitrogen environment than in an air environment. Differential scanning calorimetry results showed that GNP facilitated the nucleation of PVDF and HDPE in the composites upon crystallization. The activation energy for non-isothermal crystallization of PVDF increased with increasing GNP loading in the composites. The Avrami n values ranged from 1.9–3.8 for isothermal crystallization of PVDF in different samples. The Young’s and flexural moduli of the blend improved by more than 20% at 2 phr GNP loading in the composites. The measured rheological properties confirmed the formation of a pseudo-network structure of GNP-PVDF in the composites. The electrical resistivity of the blend reduced by three orders at a 3-phr GNP loading. The PVDF/HDPE blend and composites showed interesting application prospects for electromechanical devices and capacitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic and Thermal Properties of Graphene)
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Open AccessArticle Facile Synthesis of SnO2 Aerogel/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites via in Situ Annealing for the Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030358
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
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Abstract
SnO2 aerogel/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites were synthesized using the sol–gel method. A homogeneous dispersion of graphene oxide (GO) flakes in a tin precursor solution was captured in a three-dimensional network SnO2 aerogel matrix and successively underwent supercritical alcohol drying followed [...] Read more.
SnO2 aerogel/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites were synthesized using the sol–gel method. A homogeneous dispersion of graphene oxide (GO) flakes in a tin precursor solution was captured in a three-dimensional network SnO2 aerogel matrix and successively underwent supercritical alcohol drying followed by the in situ thermal reduction of GO, resulting in SnO2 aerogel/rGO nanocomposites. The chemical interaction between aerogel matrix and GO functional groups was confirmed by a peak shift in the Fourier transform infrared spectra and a change in the optical bandgap of the diffuse reflectance spectra. The role of rGO in 3D aerogel structure was studied in terms of photocatalytic activity with detailed mechanism of the enhancement such as electron transfer between the GO and SnO2. In addition, the photocatalytic activity of these nanocomposites in the methyl orange degradation varied depending on the amount of rGO loading in the SnO2 aerogel matrix; an appropriate amount of rGO was required for the highest enhancement in the photocatalytic activity of the SnO2 aerogel. The proposed nanocomposites could be a useful solution against water pollutants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic and Thermal Properties of Graphene)
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Open AccessArticle Introducing Well-Defined Nanowrinkles in CVD Grown Graphene
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030353
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 23 February 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
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Abstract
The control of graphene’s topography at the nanoscale level opens up the possibility to greatly improve the surface functionalization, change the doping level or create nanoscale reservoirs. However, the ability to control the modification of the topography of graphene on a wafer scale [...] Read more.
The control of graphene’s topography at the nanoscale level opens up the possibility to greatly improve the surface functionalization, change the doping level or create nanoscale reservoirs. However, the ability to control the modification of the topography of graphene on a wafer scale is still rather challenging. Here we present an approach to create well-defined nanowrinkles on a wafer scale using nitrocellulose as the polymer to transfer chemical vapor deposition grown graphene from the copper foil to a substrate. During the transfer process, the complex tertiary nitrocellulose structure is imprinted into the graphene area layer. When the graphene layer is put onto a substrate this will result in a well-defined nanowrinkle pattern, which can be subsequently further processed. Using atomic force and Raman microscopy, we characterized the generated nanowrinkles in graphene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic and Thermal Properties of Graphene)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Defects on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Graphene
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030347
Received: 26 January 2019 / Revised: 21 February 2019 / Accepted: 21 February 2019 / Published: 3 March 2019
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Abstract
In this study, the mechanical and thermal properties of graphene were systematically investigated using molecular dynamic simulations. The effects of temperature, strain rate and defect on the mechanical properties, including Young’s modulus, fracture strength and fracture strain, were studied. The results indicate that [...] Read more.
In this study, the mechanical and thermal properties of graphene were systematically investigated using molecular dynamic simulations. The effects of temperature, strain rate and defect on the mechanical properties, including Young’s modulus, fracture strength and fracture strain, were studied. The results indicate that the Young’s modulus, fracture strength and fracture strain of graphene decreased with the increase of temperature, while the fracture strength of graphene along the zigzag direction was more sensitive to the strain rate than that along armchair direction by calculating the strain rate sensitive index. The mechanical properties were significantly reduced with the existence of defect, which was due to more cracks and local stress concentration points. Besides, the thermal conductivity of graphene followed a power law of λ~L0.28, and decreased monotonously with the increase of defect concentration. Compared with the pristine graphene, the thermal conductivity of defective graphene showed a low temperature-dependent behavior since the phonon scattering caused by defect dominated the thermal properties. In addition, the corresponding underlying mechanisms were analyzed by the stress distribution, fracture structure during the deformation and phonon vibration power spectrum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic and Thermal Properties of Graphene)
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Open AccessArticle Origin of Room-Temperature Ferromagnetism in Hydrogenated Epitaxial Graphene on Silicon Carbide
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020228
Received: 4 January 2019 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 8 February 2019
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Abstract
The discovery of room-temperature ferromagnetism of hydrogenated epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide challenges for a fundamental understanding of this long-range phenomenon. Carbon allotropes with their dispersive electron states at the Fermi level and a small spin-orbit coupling are not an obvious candidate for [...] Read more.
The discovery of room-temperature ferromagnetism of hydrogenated epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide challenges for a fundamental understanding of this long-range phenomenon. Carbon allotropes with their dispersive electron states at the Fermi level and a small spin-orbit coupling are not an obvious candidate for ferromagnetism. Here we show that the origin of ferromagnetism in hydrogenated epitaxial graphene with a relatively high Curie temperature (>300 K) lies in the formation of curved specific carbon site regions in the graphene layer, induced by the underlying Si-dangling bonds and by the hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen adsorption is therefore more favourable at only one sublattice site, resulting in a localized state at the Fermi energy that can be attributed to a pseudo-Landau level splitting. This n = 0 level forms a spin-polarized narrow band at the Fermi energy leading to a high Curie temperature and larger magnetic moment can be achieved due to the presence of Si dangling bonds underneath the hydrogenated graphene layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic and Thermal Properties of Graphene)
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Open AccessArticle Thermo-Responsive Graphene Oxide/Poly(Ethyl Ethylene Phosphate) Nanocomposite via Ring Opening Polymerization
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020207
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 20 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 5 February 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4582 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
An efficient strategy for growing thermo-sensitive polymers from the surface of exfoliated graphene oxide (GO) is reported in this article. GO sheets with hydroxyls and epoxy groups on the surface were first prepared by modified Hummer’s method. Epoxy groups on GO sheets can [...] Read more.
An efficient strategy for growing thermo-sensitive polymers from the surface of exfoliated graphene oxide (GO) is reported in this article. GO sheets with hydroxyls and epoxy groups on the surface were first prepared by modified Hummer’s method. Epoxy groups on GO sheets can be easily modified through ring-opening reactions, involving nucleophilic attack by tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane (TRIS). The resulting GO-TRIS sheets became a more versatile precursor for next ring opening polymerization (ROP) of ethyl ethylene phosphate (EEP), leading to GO-TRIS/poly(ethyl ethylene phosphate) (GO-TRIS-PEEP) nanocomposite. The nanocomposite was characterized by 1H NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal gravity (DTG), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Since hydrophilic PEEP chains make the composite separate into single layers through hydrogen bonding interaction, the dispersity of the functionalized GO sheets in water is significantly improved. Meanwhile, the aqueous dispersion of GO-TRIS-PEEP nanocomposite shows reversible temperature switching self-assembly and disassembly behavior. Such a smart graphene oxide-based hybrid material is promising for applications in the biomedical field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic and Thermal Properties of Graphene)
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Open AccessArticle Latent Heat Storage and Thermal Efficacy of Carboxymethyl Cellulose Carbon Foams Containing Ag, Al, Carbon Nanotubes, and Graphene in a Phase Change Material
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020158
Received: 3 January 2019 / Revised: 19 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
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Abstract
Carbon foam was prepared from carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and Ag, Al and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and graphene was added to the foam individually, to investigate the enhancement effects on the thermal conductivity. In addition, we used the vacuum method to impregnate erythritol of [...] Read more.
Carbon foam was prepared from carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and Ag, Al and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and graphene was added to the foam individually, to investigate the enhancement effects on the thermal conductivity. In addition, we used the vacuum method to impregnate erythritol of the phase change material (PCM) into the carbon foam samples to maximize the latent heat and minimize the latent heat loss during thermal cycling. Carbon foams containing Ag (CF-Ag), Al (CF-Al), CNT (CF-CNT) and graphene (CF-G) showed higher thermal conductivity than the carbon foam without any nano thermal conducting materials (CF). From the variations in temperature with time, erythritol added to CF, CF-Ag, CF-Al, CF-CNT, and CF-G was observed to decrease the time required to reach the phase change temperature when compared with pure erythritol. Among them, erythritol added to CF-G had the fastest phase change temperature, and this was related to the fact that this material had the highest thermal conductivity of the carbon foams used in this study. According to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses, the materials in which erythritol was added (CF, CF-Ag, CF-Al, CF-CNT, and CF-G) showed lower latent heat values than pure erythritol, as a result of their supplementation with carbon foam. However, the latent heat loss of these supplemented materials was less than that of pure erythritol during thermal cycling tests because of capillary and surface tension forces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic and Thermal Properties of Graphene)
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Open AccessArticle An Ultra-High-Energy Density Supercapacitor; Fabrication Based on Thiol-functionalized Graphene Oxide Scrolls
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020148
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (23231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Present state-of-the-art graphene-based electrodes for supercapacitors remain far from commercial requirements in terms of high energy density. The realization of high energy supercapacitor electrodes remains challenging, because graphene-based electrode materials are synthesized by the chemical modification of graphene. The modified graphene electrodes have [...] Read more.
Present state-of-the-art graphene-based electrodes for supercapacitors remain far from commercial requirements in terms of high energy density. The realization of high energy supercapacitor electrodes remains challenging, because graphene-based electrode materials are synthesized by the chemical modification of graphene. The modified graphene electrodes have lower electrical conductivity than ideal graphene, and limited electrochemically active surface areas due to restacking, which hinders the access of electrolyte ions, resulting in a low energy density. In order to solve the issue of restacking and low electrical conductivity, we introduce thiol-functionalized, nitrogen-doped, reduced graphene oxide scrolls as the electrode materials for an electric double-layer supercapacitor. The fabricated supercapacitor exhibits a very high energy/power density of 206 Wh/kg (59.74 Wh/L)/496 W/kg at a current density of 0.25 A/g, and a high power/energy density of 32 kW/kg (9.8 kW/L)/9.58 Wh/kg at a current density of 50 A/g; it also operates in a voltage range of 0~4 V with excellent cyclic stability of more than 20,000 cycles. By suitably combining the scroll-based electrode and electrolyte material, this study presents a strategy for electrode design for next-generation energy storage devices with high energy density without compromising the power density. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic and Thermal Properties of Graphene)
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Open AccessArticle Atomistic Study of Mechanical Behaviors of Carbon Honeycombs
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010109
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
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Abstract
With an ultralarge surface-to-volume ratio, a recently synthesized three-dimensional graphene structure, namely, carbon honeycomb, promises important engineering applications. Herein, we have investigated, via molecular dynamics simulations, its mechanical properties, which are inevitable for its integrity and desirable for any feasible implementations. The uniaxial [...] Read more.
With an ultralarge surface-to-volume ratio, a recently synthesized three-dimensional graphene structure, namely, carbon honeycomb, promises important engineering applications. Herein, we have investigated, via molecular dynamics simulations, its mechanical properties, which are inevitable for its integrity and desirable for any feasible implementations. The uniaxial tension and nanoindentation behaviors are numerically examined. Stress–strain curves manifest a transformation of covalent bonds of hinge atoms when they are stretched in the channel direction. The load–displacement curve in nanoindentation simulation implies the hardness and Young’s modulus to be 50.9 GPa and 461±9 GPa, respectively. Our results might be useful for material and device design for carbon honeycomb-based systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic and Thermal Properties of Graphene)
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Open AccessArticle Facile and Green Synthesis of Graphene-Based Conductive Adhesives via Liquid Exfoliation Process
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010038
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 23 December 2018 / Published: 28 December 2018
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Abstract
In this study, we report a facile and green process to synthesize high-quality and few-layer graphene (FLG) derived from graphite via a liquid exfoliation process. The corresponding characterizations of FLG, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), atomic force microscopy [...] Read more.
In this study, we report a facile and green process to synthesize high-quality and few-layer graphene (FLG) derived from graphite via a liquid exfoliation process. The corresponding characterizations of FLG, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy, were carried out. The results of SEM show that the lateral size of as-synthesized FLG is 1–5 μm. The results of TEM and AFM indicate more than 80% of graphene layers is <10 layers. The most surprising thing is that D/G ratio of graphite and FLG are 0.15 and 0.19, respectively. The result of the similar D/G ratio demonstrates that little structural defects were created via the liquid exfoliation process. Electronic conductivity tests and resistance of composite film, in terms of different contents of graphite/polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) and FLG/PVDF, were carried out. Dramatically, the FLG/PVDF composite demonstrates superior performance compared to the graphite/PVDF composite at the same ratio. In addition, the post-sintering process plays an important role in improving electronic conductivity by 85%. The composition-optimized FLG/PVDF thin film exhibits 81.9 S·cm−1. These results indicate that the developed FLG/PVDF composite adhesives could be a potential candidate for conductive adhesive applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic and Thermal Properties of Graphene)
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Open AccessCommunication Electrochemical Enantiomer Recognition Based on sp3-to-sp2 Converted Regenerative Graphene/Diamond Electrode
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(12), 1050; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8121050
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 14 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 14 December 2018
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Abstract
It is of great significance to distinguish enantiomers due to their different, even completely opposite biological, physiological and pharmacological activities compared to those with different stereochemistry. A sp3-to-sp2 converted highly stable and regenerative graphene/diamond electrode (G/D) was proposed as an [...] Read more.
It is of great significance to distinguish enantiomers due to their different, even completely opposite biological, physiological and pharmacological activities compared to those with different stereochemistry. A sp3-to-sp2 converted highly stable and regenerative graphene/diamond electrode (G/D) was proposed as an enantiomer recognition platform after a simple β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) drop casting process. The proposed enantiomer recognition sensor has been successfully used for d and l-phenylalanine recognition. In addition, the G/D electrode can be simply regenerated by half-minute sonication due to the strong interfacial bonding between graphene and diamond. Therefore, the proposed G/D electrode showed significant potential as a reusable sensing platform for enantiomer recognition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic and Thermal Properties of Graphene)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Recent Advances in Graphene-Based Humidity Sensors
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030422
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 1 March 2019 / Accepted: 3 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
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Abstract
Humidity sensors are a common, but important type of sensors in our daily life and industrial processing. Graphene and graphene-based materials have shown great potential for detecting humidity due to their ultrahigh specific surface areas, extremely high electron mobility at room temperature, and [...] Read more.
Humidity sensors are a common, but important type of sensors in our daily life and industrial processing. Graphene and graphene-based materials have shown great potential for detecting humidity due to their ultrahigh specific surface areas, extremely high electron mobility at room temperature, and low electrical noise due to the quality of its crystal lattice and its very high electrical conductivity. However, there are still no specific reviews on the progresses of graphene-based humidity sensors. This review focuses on the recent advances in graphene-based humidity sensors, starting from an introduction on the preparation and properties of graphene materials and the sensing mechanisms of seven types of commonly studied graphene-based humidity sensors, and mainly summarizes the recent advances in the preparation and performance of humidity sensors based on pristine graphene, graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, graphene quantum dots, and a wide variety of graphene based composite materials, including chemical modification, polymer, metal, metal oxide, and other 2D materials. The remaining challenges along with future trends in high-performance graphene-based humidity sensors are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic and Thermal Properties of Graphene)
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Open AccessReview Recent Progress on Graphene-Functionalized Metasurfaces for Tunable Phase and Polarization Control
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030398
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 16 February 2019 / Accepted: 17 February 2019 / Published: 8 March 2019
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Abstract
The combination of graphene and a metasurface holds great promise for dynamic manipulation of the electromagnetic wave from low terahertz to mid-infrared. The optical response of graphene is significantly enhanced by the highly-localized fields in the meta-atoms, and the characteristics of meta-atoms can [...] Read more.
The combination of graphene and a metasurface holds great promise for dynamic manipulation of the electromagnetic wave from low terahertz to mid-infrared. The optical response of graphene is significantly enhanced by the highly-localized fields in the meta-atoms, and the characteristics of meta-atoms can in turn be modulated in a large dynamic range through electrical doping of graphene. Graphene metasurfaces are initially focused on intensity modulation as modulators and tunable absorbers. In this paper, we review the recent progress of graphene metasurfaces for active control of the phase and the polarization. The related applications involve, but are not limited to lenses with tunable intensity or focal length, dynamic beam scanning, wave plates with tunable frequency, switchable polarizers, and real-time generation of an arbitrary polarization state, all by tuning the gate voltage of graphene. The review is concluded with a discussion of the existing challenges and the personal perspective of future directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic and Thermal Properties of Graphene)
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Open AccessReview Electronic and Thermal Properties of Graphene and Recent Advances in Graphene Based Electronics Applications
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030374
Received: 1 February 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 21 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
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Abstract
Recently, graphene has been extensively researched in fundamental science and engineering fields and has been developed for various electronic applications in emerging technologies owing to its outstanding material properties, including superior electronic, thermal, optical and mechanical properties. Thus, graphene has enabled substantial progress [...] Read more.
Recently, graphene has been extensively researched in fundamental science and engineering fields and has been developed for various electronic applications in emerging technologies owing to its outstanding material properties, including superior electronic, thermal, optical and mechanical properties. Thus, graphene has enabled substantial progress in the development of the current electronic systems. Here, we introduce the most important electronic and thermal properties of graphene, including its high conductivity, quantum Hall effect, Dirac fermions, high Seebeck coefficient and thermoelectric effects. We also present up-to-date graphene-based applications: optical devices, electronic and thermal sensors, and energy management systems. These applications pave the way for advanced biomedical engineering, reliable human therapy, and environmental protection. In this review, we show that the development of graphene suggests substantial improvements in current electronic technologies and applications in healthcare systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic and Thermal Properties of Graphene)
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Open AccessReview Electrical Property of Graphene and Its Application to Electrochemical Biosensing
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020297
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 20 February 2019
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Abstract
Graphene, a single atom thick layer of two-dimensional closely packed honeycomb carbon lattice, and its derivatives have attracted much attention in the field of biomedical, due to its unique physicochemical properties. The valuable physicochemical properties, such as high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, [...] Read more.
Graphene, a single atom thick layer of two-dimensional closely packed honeycomb carbon lattice, and its derivatives have attracted much attention in the field of biomedical, due to its unique physicochemical properties. The valuable physicochemical properties, such as high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, remarkable biocompatibility and ease of surface functionalization have shown great potentials in the applications of graphene-based bioelectronics devices, including electrochemical biosensors for biomarker analysis. In this review, we will provide a selective overview of recent advances on synthesis methods of graphene and its derivatives, as well as its application to electrochemical biosensor development. We believe the topics discussed here are useful, and able to provide a guideline in the development of novel graphene and on graphene-like 2-dimensional (2D) materials based biosensors in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic and Thermal Properties of Graphene)
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Open AccessReview The Thermal, Electrical and Thermoelectric Properties of Graphene Nanomaterials
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020218
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (12715 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Graphene, as a typical two-dimensional nanometer material, has shown its unique application potential in electrical characteristics, thermal properties, and thermoelectric properties by virtue of its novel electronic structure. The field of traditional material modification mainly changes or enhances certain properties of materials by [...] Read more.
Graphene, as a typical two-dimensional nanometer material, has shown its unique application potential in electrical characteristics, thermal properties, and thermoelectric properties by virtue of its novel electronic structure. The field of traditional material modification mainly changes or enhances certain properties of materials by mixing a variety of materials (to form a heterostructure) and doping. For graphene as well, this paper specifically discusses the use of traditional modification methods to improve graphene’s electrical and thermoelectrical properties. More deeply, since graphene is an atomic-level thin film material, its shape and edge conformation (zigzag boundary and armchair boundary) have a great impact on performance. Therefore, this paper reviews the graphene modification field in recent years. Through the change in the shape of graphene, the change in the boundary structure configuration, the doping of other atoms, and the formation of a heterostructure, the electrical, thermal, and thermoelectric properties of graphene change, resulting in broader applications in more fields. Through studies of graphene’s electrical, thermal, and thermoelectric properties in recent years, progress has been made not only in experimental testing, but also in theoretical calculation. These aspects of graphene are reviewed in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic and Thermal Properties of Graphene)
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