Graphene, as a typical two-dimensional nanometer material, has shown its unique application potential in electrical characteristics, thermal properties, and thermoelectric properties by virtue of its novel electronic structure. The field of traditional material modification mainly changes or enhances certain properties of materials by mixing a variety of materials (to form a heterostructure) and doping. For graphene as well, this paper specifically discusses the use of traditional modification methods to improve graphene’s electrical and thermoelectrical properties. More deeply, since graphene is an atomic-level thin film material, its shape and edge conformation (zigzag boundary and armchair boundary) have a great impact on performance. Therefore, this paper reviews the graphene modification field in recent years. Through the change in the shape of graphene, the change in the boundary structure configuration, the doping of other atoms, and the formation of a heterostructure, the electrical, thermal, and thermoelectric properties of graphene change, resulting in broader applications in more fields. Through studies of graphene’s electrical, thermal, and thermoelectric properties in recent years, progress has been made not only in experimental testing, but also in theoretical calculation. These aspects of graphene are reviewed in this paper.
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