Special Issue "Applications of Carbon Nanotubes"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Christopher Gibson

Flinders Centre for NanoScale Science and Technology, College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +61 8 82017978
Interests: atomic force microscopy (AFM); AFM cantilever calibration and dynamics; mass sensing using micro-cantilevers; carbon nanotube attachment to AFM probes and applications; scanning electron microscopy; raman microscopy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Carbon nanotubes are rolled up sheets of one-atom-thick carbon, also known as graphene, and can therefore be either single walled or multi-walled. Depending on what angle the graphene sheet is rolled at, as well as the diameter of the nanotube, which may also be metallic or semi-conducting in nature. The chemical bonding of the carbon atoms in nanotubes is stronger than that found in diamond, and provides carbon nanotubes with immense strength. They also possess excellent electrical and heat conducting properties which have made them the focus of research throughout the worldwide scientific community for the past 25 years. With the amazing properties they display they have found applications in many areas of science and technology including, for example, materials science, energy production and storage, nanotechnology, microscopy, drug delivery and microelectronics. This Special Issue of Nanomaterials is aimed at presenting the very latest developments in the applications of carbon nanotubes by leading research groups in the field. These invited contributions aim to give a state-of-the-art description of the crucial role that carbon nanotubes play in improving research and making a host of new and exciting devices possible.

Dr. Christopher Gibson
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • single-wall
  • multi-wall
  • chiral nanotubes
  • electrical properties
  • thermal properties
  • mechanical properties
  • nanodevices
  • nanotechnology

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Improved Application of Carbon Nanotube Atomic Force Microscopy Probes Using PeakForce Tapping Mode
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100807
Received: 6 September 2018 / Revised: 24 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Abstract
In this work PeakForce tapping (PFT) imaging was demonstrated with carbon nanotube atomic force microscopy (CNT-AFM) probes; this imaging mode shows great promise for providing simple, stable imaging with CNT-AFM probes, which can be difficult to apply. The PFT mode is used with
[...] Read more.
In this work PeakForce tapping (PFT) imaging was demonstrated with carbon nanotube atomic force microscopy (CNT-AFM) probes; this imaging mode shows great promise for providing simple, stable imaging with CNT-AFM probes, which can be difficult to apply. The PFT mode is used with CNT-AFM probes to demonstrate high resolution imaging on samples with features in the nanometre range, including a Nioprobe calibration sample and gold nanoparticles on silicon, in order to demonstrate the modes imaging effectiveness, and to also aid in determining the diameter of very thin CNT-AFM probes. In addition to stable operation, the PFT mode is shown to eliminate “ringing” artefacts that often affect CNT-AFM probes in tapping mode near steep vertical step edges. This will allow for the characterization of high aspect ratio structures using CNT-AFM probes, an exercise which has previously been challenging with the standard tapping mode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Carbon Nanotubes)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Contact Pressure on the Performance of Carbon Nanotube Arrays Thermal Interface Material
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(9), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8090732
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays are promising candidates for advanced thermal interface materials (TIMs) since they possess high mechanical compliance and high intrinsic thermal conductivity. Some of the previous works indicate that the CNT arrays in direct dry contact with the target
[...] Read more.
Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays are promising candidates for advanced thermal interface materials (TIMs) since they possess high mechanical compliance and high intrinsic thermal conductivity. Some of the previous works indicate that the CNT arrays in direct dry contact with the target surface possess low contact thermal conductance, which is the dominant thermal resistance. Using a phase sensitive transient thermo-reflectance (PSTTR) technique, we measure the thermal conductance between CNT arrays and copper (Cu) surfaces under different pressures. The experiments demonstrated that the contact force is one of the crucial factors for optimizing the thermal performance of CNT array-based TIMs. The experimental results suggest that the Cu-CNT arrays’ contact thermal conductance has a strong dependence on the surface deformation and has an order of magnitude rise as the contact pressure increases from 0.05 to 0.15 MPa. However, further increase of the contact pressure beyond 0.15 MPa has little effect on the contact thermal resistance. This work could provide guidelines to determine the minimum requirement of packaging pressure on CNT TIMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Carbon Nanotubes)
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Open AccessArticle Measuring the Density of States of the Inner and Outer Wall of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(6), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8060448
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (711 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The combination of ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and metastable helium induced electron spectroscopy is used to determine the density of states of the inner and outer coaxial carbon nanotubes. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy typically measures the density of states across the entire carbon nanotube, while
[...] Read more.
The combination of ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and metastable helium induced electron spectroscopy is used to determine the density of states of the inner and outer coaxial carbon nanotubes. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy typically measures the density of states across the entire carbon nanotube, while metastable helium induced electron spectroscopy measures the density of states of the outermost layer alone. The use of double-walled carbon nanotubes in electronic devices allows for the outer wall to be functionalised whilst the inner wall remains defect free and the density of states is kept intact for electron transport. Separating the information of the inner and outer walls enables development of double-walled carbon nanotubes to be independent, such that the charge transport of the inner wall is maintained and confirmed whilst the outer wall is modified for functional purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Carbon Nanotubes)
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of Synthesis Conditions of Carbon Nanotubes via Ultrasonic-Assisted Floating Catalyst Deposition Using Response Surface Methodology
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(5), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8050316
Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 4 May 2018 / Accepted: 7 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5173 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The growing use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a plethora of applications has provided to us a motivation to investigate CNT synthesis by new methods. In this study, ultrasonic-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method was employed to synthesize CNTs. The difficulty of controlling
[...] Read more.
The growing use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a plethora of applications has provided to us a motivation to investigate CNT synthesis by new methods. In this study, ultrasonic-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method was employed to synthesize CNTs. The difficulty of controlling the size of clusters and achieving uniform distribution—the major problem in previous methods—was solved by using ultrasonic bath and dissolving ferrocene in xylene outside the reactor. The operating conditions were optimized using a rotatable central composite design (CCD), which helped optimize the operating conditions of the method. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to analyze these experiments. Using statistical software was very effective, considering that it decreased the number of experiments needed to achieve the optimum conditions. Synthesis of CNTs was studied as a function of three independent parameters viz. hydrogen flow rate (120–280 cm3/min), catalyst concentration (2–6 wt %), and synthesis temperature (800–1200 °C). Optimum conditions for the synthesis of CNTs were found to be 3.78 wt %, 184 cm3/min, and 976 °C for catalyst concentration, hydrogen flow rate, and synthesis temperature, respectively. Under these conditions, Raman spectrum indicates high values of (IG/ID), which means high-quality CNTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Carbon Nanotubes)
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Open AccessArticle Stochastic Resonance and Safe Basin of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Strongly Nonlinear Stiffness under Random Magnetic Field
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(5), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8050298
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 24 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 4 May 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, a kind of single-walled carbon nanotube nonlinear model is developed and the strongly nonlinear dynamic characteristics of such carbon nanotubes subjected to random magnetic field are studied. The nonlocal effect of the microstructure is considered based on Eringen’s differential constitutive
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a kind of single-walled carbon nanotube nonlinear model is developed and the strongly nonlinear dynamic characteristics of such carbon nanotubes subjected to random magnetic field are studied. The nonlocal effect of the microstructure is considered based on Eringen’s differential constitutive model. The natural frequency of the strongly nonlinear dynamic system is obtained by the energy function method, the drift coefficient and the diffusion coefficient are verified. The stationary probability density function of the system dynamic response is given and the fractal boundary of the safe basin is provided. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show that stochastic resonance occurs when varying the random magnetic field intensity. The boundary of safe basin has fractal characteristics and the area of safe basin decreases when the intensity of the magnetic field permeability increases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Carbon Nanotubes)
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Open AccessArticle Label-Free Biosensor Using a Silver Specific RNA-Cleaving DNAzyme Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube for Silver Ion Determination
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(4), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8040258
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
Silver, a very common heavy metal, has been employed in electronics, medicine, jewelry, and catalysis due to its excellent chemical and physical characteristics. Silver-containing wastes can cause environmental pollution, so it is vital to monitor the Ag(I) concentration. Here, a label-free biosensor was
[...] Read more.
Silver, a very common heavy metal, has been employed in electronics, medicine, jewelry, and catalysis due to its excellent chemical and physical characteristics. Silver-containing wastes can cause environmental pollution, so it is vital to monitor the Ag(I) concentration. Here, a label-free biosensor was developed for the Ag(I) detection, which used single-walled carbon nanotubes/field effect transistor (SWNTs/FET) to functionalize with a specific DNAzyme, containing an Agzyme and a complementary strand DNA (CS-DNA) embedded an RNA-base. The CS-DNA was covalently immobilized on the SWNTs’ surface through peptide bonds, and then combined with the Agzyme. When Ag(I) was bound with the Agzyme, the CS-DNA can be cleaved at the RNA site efficiently. The cleaved DNAzyme induced a remarkable change in the electrical conductivity of SWNTs. The performances of DNAzyme/SWNTs/FET were investigated using different spectroscopy and electrochemical methods. Under the optimized parameters, DNAzyme/SWNTs/FET presented a high sensitivity and selectivity towards Ag(I), in which the linear response range is 10 pM to 106 pM and the limit of detection is 5 pM(S/N = 3). Additionally, the prepared biosensor was applied to measure the Ag(I) concentration in the water sample with good results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Carbon Nanotubes)
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Open AccessArticle Epoxidation of Carbon Nanocapsules: Decoration of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Filled with Metal Halides
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(3), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8030137
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 24 February 2018 / Accepted: 26 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
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Abstract
Methyl(trifluoromethyl)dioxirane (TFDO) can be used for the oxyfunctionalization of SWCNTs filled with NaI and LuCl3 under mild conditions. The chosen metal halides are of interest for theranostics, both for imaging and therapy when in their radioactive form. The applied functionalization methodology does
[...] Read more.
Methyl(trifluoromethyl)dioxirane (TFDO) can be used for the oxyfunctionalization of SWCNTs filled with NaI and LuCl3 under mild conditions. The chosen metal halides are of interest for theranostics, both for imaging and therapy when in their radioactive form. The applied functionalization methodology does not require metal catalyst, preserves the integrity of the nanotubes during treatment, avoiding the release of the filling material. In this way, epoxidation can be considered as an efficient methodology for the functionalization of carbon nanocapsules, where the traditional harsh oxidation conditions by acids are not applicable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Carbon Nanotubes)
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