Special Issue "Gas Sensors and Semiconductor Nanotechnology"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. János Mizsei
Website
Guest Editor
Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Electron Devices, Budapest, Hungary
Interests: semiconductor technology; semiconductor gas sensors; semiconductor devices; photovoltaics; semiconductor surfaces; thermal electronics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Solid-state semiconductor gas sensors have attracted a great deal of attention over the past two decades or more due to their importance in gas analysis and safety applications. The chemical sensitivity of a semiconductor surface serves as a way to transduce the chemical information around the surfaces into an electrical signal for gas-sensing applications.

Sensor technology development has a long history. It includes thick film and thin film technology, and, recently, semiconductor nanotechnology. Size-dependent physical properties are very important in the theory and construction of semiconductor devices, metal and semiconductor nanoparticles are basic components of recently used gas-sensitive materials.

This Special Issue of Nanomaterials will attempt to cover the recent advancements in semiconductor gas sensor technology, its theory of operations, and the role of nanoparticles and nano-sized structures for sensor applications.

Prof. Dr. János Mizsei
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • size effects in semiconductors
  • gas adsorption and desorption
  • catalytic activity
  • surface doping
  • work function
  • noble-metal particles

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
NH3-Sensing Mechanism Using Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor with AlO(OH) Film
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1732; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121732 - 04 Dec 2019
Abstract
In this study, AlO(OH) (boehmite) film was deposited onto a surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator using a combined sol-gel and spin-coating technology, and prepared and used as a sensitive layer for a high-performance ammonia sensor. The prepared AlO(OH) film has a mesoporous structure [...] Read more.
In this study, AlO(OH) (boehmite) film was deposited onto a surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator using a combined sol-gel and spin-coating technology, and prepared and used as a sensitive layer for a high-performance ammonia sensor. The prepared AlO(OH) film has a mesoporous structure and a good affinity to NH3 (ammonia gas) molecules, and thus can selectively adsorb and react with NH3. When exposed to ammonia gases, the SAW sensor shows an initial positive response of the frequency shift, and then a slight decrease of the frequency responses. The sensing mechanism of the NH3 sensor is based on the competition between mass-loading and elastic-loading effects. The sensor operated at room temperature shows a positive response of 1540 Hz to 10 ppm NH3, with excellent sensitivity, selectivity and stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors and Semiconductor Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrothermal Synthesis of SnO2 Nanoneedle-Anchored NiO Microsphere and its Gas Sensing Performances
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(7), 1015; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9071015 - 15 Jul 2019
Cited by 10
Abstract
In this study, we reported a successful synthesis of a nanocomposite based on SnO2 nanoneedles anchored to NiO microsphere by a simple two-step hydrothermal route. The results show that the SnO2/NiO nanocomposite-based sensor exhibits more prominent performances than the pristine [...] Read more.
In this study, we reported a successful synthesis of a nanocomposite based on SnO2 nanoneedles anchored to NiO microsphere by a simple two-step hydrothermal route. The results show that the SnO2/NiO nanocomposite-based sensor exhibits more prominent performances than the pristine NiO microsphere to NO2 such as larger responses and more outstanding repeatability. The improved properties are mainly attributed to the p–n heterojunctions formed at the SnO2–NiO interface, leading to the change of potential barrier height and the enlargement of the depletion layer. Besides, the novel and unique nanostructure provides large and effective areas for the surface reaction. In addition, a plausible growth mechanism and the enhanced sensing mechanism were proposed to further discuss the special nanostructure which will benefit the exploration of high-performance sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors and Semiconductor Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle
The Synthesis of the Pomegranate-Shaped α-Fe2O3 Using an In Situ Corrosion Method of Scorodite and Its Gas-Sensitive Property
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(7), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9070977 - 04 Jul 2019
Abstract
The release of hazardous gas increases with the development of industry. The research of gas-sensitive materials has attracted attention. Nanoscale iron oxide (α-Fe2O3) is one of the research hotspots of gas-sensitive materials because it is a cheap, non-toxic semiconductor [...] Read more.
The release of hazardous gas increases with the development of industry. The research of gas-sensitive materials has attracted attention. Nanoscale iron oxide (α-Fe2O3) is one of the research hotspots of gas-sensitive materials because it is a cheap, non-toxic semiconductor material. In this study, pomegranate-shaped α-Fe2O3 was synthesized using an in situ corrosion method of scorodite. Spherical-shaped α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were included in the octahedral shells. The forming process of the structure was analyzed by a variety of measurements. The shell was formed first through the deposition of Fe(OH)3, which was produced by hydrolyzing scorodite. Then, the corrosion was continued and Fe(OH)3 precipitation was produced below the shell. The particles aggregated and formed spheres. The pomegranate-shaped α-Fe2O3 was formed when the scorodite was hydrolyzed completely. The gas-sensing properties of α-Fe2O3 were investigated. The results showed that pomegranate-shaped α-Fe2O3 was responsive to a variety of gases, especially xylene. The value of Ra/Rg was 67.29 at 340 °C when the concentration of xylene was 1000 ppm. This indicated the pomegranate-shaped α-Fe2O3 has potential application as a xylene gas sensor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors and Semiconductor Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle
Heterostructured NiO/ZnO Nanorod Arrays with Significantly Enhanced H2S Sensing Performance
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(6), 900; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9060900 - 20 Jun 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
H2S gas sensors were fabricated using p-n heterojunctions of NiO/ZnO, in which the ZnO nanorod arrays were wrapped with NiO nanosheets via a hydrothermal synthesis method. When the H2S gas molecules were adsorbed and then oxidized on the ZnO [...] Read more.
H2S gas sensors were fabricated using p-n heterojunctions of NiO/ZnO, in which the ZnO nanorod arrays were wrapped with NiO nanosheets via a hydrothermal synthesis method. When the H2S gas molecules were adsorbed and then oxidized on the ZnO surfaces, the free electrons were released. The increase in the electron concentration on the ZnO boosts the transport speed of the electrons on both sides of the NiO/ZnO p-n junction, which significantly improved the sensing performance and selectivity for H2S detection, if compared with sensors using the pure ZnO nanorod arrays. The response to 20 ppm of H2S was 21.3 at 160 °C for the heterostructured NiO/ZnO sensor, and the limit of detection was 0.1 ppm. We found that when the sensor was exposed to H2S at an operating temperature below 160 °C, the resistance of the sensor significantly decreased, indicating its n-type semiconductor nature, whereas when the operating temperature was above 160 °C, the resistance significantly increased, indicating its p-type semiconductor nature. The sensing mechanism of the NiO/ZnO heterostructured H2S gas sensor was discussed in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors and Semiconductor Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancement of Acetone Gas-Sensing Responses of Tapered WO3 Nanorods through Sputtering Coating with a Thin SnO2 Coverage Layer
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(6), 864; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9060864 - 06 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
WO3–SnO2 composite nanorods were synthesized by combining hydrothermal growth of tapered tungsten trioxide (WO3) nanorods and sputter deposition of thin SnO2 layers. Crystalline SnO2 coverage layers with thicknesses in the range of 13–34 nm were sputter [...] Read more.
WO3–SnO2 composite nanorods were synthesized by combining hydrothermal growth of tapered tungsten trioxide (WO3) nanorods and sputter deposition of thin SnO2 layers. Crystalline SnO2 coverage layers with thicknesses in the range of 13–34 nm were sputter coated onto WO3 nanorods by controlling the sputtering duration of the SnO2. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis results demonstrated that crystalline hexagonal WO3–tetragonal SnO2 composite nanorods were formed. The microstructural analysis revealed that the SnO2 coverage layers were in a polycrystalline feature. The elemental distribution analysis revealed that the SnO2 thin layers homogeneously covered the surfaces of the hexagonally structured WO3 nanorods. The WO3–SnO2 composite nanorods with the thinnest SnO2 coverage layer showed superior gas-sensing response to 100–1000 ppm acetone vapor compared to other composite nanorods investigated in this study. The substantially improved gas-sensing responses to acetone vapor of the hexagonally structured WO3 nanorods coated with the SnO2 coverage layers are discussed in relation to the thickness of SnO2 coverage layers and the core–shell configuration of the WO3–SnO2 composite nanorods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors and Semiconductor Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of AuPd Bimetal Sensitization on Gas Sensing Performance of Nanocrystalline SnO2 Obtained by Single Step Flame Spray Pyrolysis
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(5), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9050728 - 10 May 2019
Abstract
Improvement of sensitivity, lower detection limits, stability and reproducibility of semiconductor metal oxide gas sensor characteristics are required for their application in the fields of ecological monitoring, industrial safety, public security, express medical diagnostics, etc. Facile and scalable single step flame spray pyrolysis [...] Read more.
Improvement of sensitivity, lower detection limits, stability and reproducibility of semiconductor metal oxide gas sensor characteristics are required for their application in the fields of ecological monitoring, industrial safety, public security, express medical diagnostics, etc. Facile and scalable single step flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) synthesis of bimetal AuPd sensitized nanocrystalline SnO2 is reported. The materials chemical composition, structure and morphology has been studied by XRD, XPS, HAADFSTEM, BET, ICP-MS techniques. Thermo-programmed reduction with hydrogen (TPR-H2) has been used for materials chemical reactivity characterization. Superior gas sensor response of bimetallic modified SnO2 towards wide concentration range of reducing (CO, CH4, C3H8, H2S, NH3) and oxidizing (NO2) gases compared to pure and monometallic modified SnO2 is reported for dry and humid gas detection conditions. The combination of facilitated oxygen molecule spillover on gold particles and electronic effect of Fermi level control by reoxidizing Pd-PdO clusters on SnO2 surface is proposed to give rise to the observed enhanced gas sensor performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors and Semiconductor Nanotechnology)
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