Special Issue "Nanomechanical and Optical Biosensors"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanoelectronics, Nanosensors and Devices".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 July 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Mar Alvarez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Microelectronics of Barcelona (IMB-CNM), CSIC, Barcelona, Spain
Interests: nanomechanical sensors; biosensors; opto-mechanical systems; plasmonics; photonics; lab-on-a-chip; point-of-care
Dr. Xavier Muñoz-Berbel
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona IMB-CNM (CSIC), Barcelona, Spain
Interests: optoelectronics, optical sensors; biosensors; MEMS; microfabrication technologies.
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Currently, there is a huge demand for rapid, accessible, and affordable tools for the decentralized analysis of samples in many different areas, including environmental, food analysis, and healthcare. Nanomechanical and optical biosensors have been demonstrated to be powerful and promising tools for biosensing due to their small size, fast response, high sensitivity, and compatible integration into point-of-care (POC) devices. Advances in nanofabrication technologies and nanomaterials has enabled the achievement of smaller transducers with improved analytical performances (e.g. shorter response times, larger dynamic ranges, and unprecedented sensitivities).    

The aim of this Special Issue is to report recent advancements in nanoscience and nanotechnology leading to the new generation of nanomechanical, optomechanical, and optical biosensors for healthcare diagnostics, food quality control, and environmental monitoring. It is envisaged that this will cover a wide range of sensors, including nanomechanical, opto-mechanical, photonic, plasmonic, and optical biosensors that measure absorbance, reflectance, scattering, and/or fluorescence in the ultraviolet, visible, or near-infrared spectral region.

Dr. Mar Alvarez
Dr. Xavier Muñoz-Berbel
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanomechanical
  • opto-mechanical
  • optical
  • nanoparticles
  • nanostructures
  • nanomaterials
  • plasmonics
  • photonics
  • photonic crystals
  • spectroscopy

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Novel Regeneration Approach for Creating Reusable FO-SPR Probes with NTA Surface Chemistry
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(1), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010186 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 798
Abstract
To date, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors have been exploited in numerous different contexts while continuously pushing boundaries in terms of improved sensitivity, specificity, portability and reusability. The latter has attracted attention as a viable alternative to disposable biosensors, also offering prospects for [...] Read more.
To date, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors have been exploited in numerous different contexts while continuously pushing boundaries in terms of improved sensitivity, specificity, portability and reusability. The latter has attracted attention as a viable alternative to disposable biosensors, also offering prospects for rapid screening of biomolecules or biomolecular interactions. In this context here, we developed an approach to successfully regenerate a fiber-optic (FO)-SPR surface when utilizing cobalt (II)-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) surface chemistry. To achieve this, we tested multiple regeneration conditions that can disrupt the NTA chelate on a surface fully saturated with His6-tagged antibody fragments (scFv-33H1F7) over ten regeneration cycles. The best surface regeneration was obtained when combining 100 mM EDTA, 500 mM imidazole and 0.5% SDS at pH 8.0 for 1 min with shaking at 150 rpm followed by washing with 0.5 M NaOH for 3 min. The true versatility of the established approach was proven by regenerating the NTA surface for ten cycles with three other model system bioreceptors, different in their size and structure: His6-tagged SARS-CoV-2 spike fragment (receptor binding domain, RBD), a red fluorescent protein (RFP) and protein origami carrying 4 RFPs (Tet12SN-RRRR). Enabling the removal of His6-tagged bioreceptors from NTA surfaces in a fast and cost-effective manner can have broad applications, spanning from the development of biosensors and various biopharmaceutical analyses to the synthesis of novel biomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomechanical and Optical Biosensors)
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Article
Direct and Label-Free Monitoring of Albumin in 2D Fatty Liver Disease Model Using Plasmonic Nanogratings
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(12), 2520; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10122520 - 15 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1546
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) is a metabolic disorder related to a chronic lipid accumulation within the hepatocytes. This disease is the most common liver disorder worldwide, and it is estimated that it is present in up to 25% of the world’s population. However, [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) is a metabolic disorder related to a chronic lipid accumulation within the hepatocytes. This disease is the most common liver disorder worldwide, and it is estimated that it is present in up to 25% of the world’s population. However, the real prevalence of this disease and the associated disorders is unknown mainly because reliable and applicable diagnostic tools are lacking. It is known that the level of albumin, a pleiotropic protein synthesized by hepatocytes, is correlated with the correct function of the liver. The development of a complementary tool that allows direct, sensitive, and label-free monitoring of albumin secretion in hepatocyte cell culture can provide insight into NAFLD’s mechanism and drug action. With this aim, we have developed a simple integrated plasmonic biosensor based on gold nanogratings from periodic nanostructures present in commercial Blu-ray optical discs. This sensor allows the direct and label-free monitoring of albumin in a 2D fatty liver disease model under flow conditions using a highly-specific polyclonal antibody. This technology avoids both the amplification and blocking steps showing a limit of detection within pM range (≈0.26 ng/mL). Thanks to this technology, we identified the optimal fetal bovine serum (FBS) concentration to maximize the cells’ lipid accumulation. Moreover, we discovered that the hepatocytes increased the amount of albumin secreted on the third day from the lipids challenge. These data demonstrate the ability of hepatocytes to respond to the lipid stimulation releasing more albumin. Further investigation is needed to unveil the biological significance of that cell behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomechanical and Optical Biosensors)
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Article
Portable Real-Time Detection of Pb(II) Using a CMOS MEMS-Based Nanomechanical Sensing Array Modified with PEDOT:PSS
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(12), 2454; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10122454 - 08 Dec 2020
Viewed by 729
Abstract
Detecting the concentration of Pb2+ ions is important for monitoring the quality of water due to it can become a health threat as being in certain level. In this study, we report a nanomechanical Pb2+ sensor by employing the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor [...] Read more.
Detecting the concentration of Pb2+ ions is important for monitoring the quality of water due to it can become a health threat as being in certain level. In this study, we report a nanomechanical Pb2+ sensor by employing the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor microelectromechanical system (CMOS MEMS)-based piezoresistive microcantilevers coated with PEDOT:PSS sensing layers. Upon reaction with Pb2+, the PEDOT:PSS layer was oxidized which induced the surface stress change resulted in a subsequent bending of the microcantilever with the signal response of relative resistance change. This sensing platform has the advantages of being mass-produced, miniaturized, and portable. The sensor exhibited its sensitivity to Pb2+ concentrations in a linear range of 0.01–1000 ppm, and the limit of detection was 5 ppb. Moreover, the sensor showed the specificity to Pb2+, required a small sample volume and was easy to operate. Therefore, the proposed analytical method described here may be a sensitive, cost-effective and portable sensing tool for on-site water quality measurement and pollution detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomechanical and Optical Biosensors)
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Article
Nanoplasmonic Paper-Based Platform for General Screening of Biomacromolecules
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(12), 2335; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10122335 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 605
Abstract
Hygiene assessment in industrial and clinical environments is crucial in the prevention of health risks. Current technologies for routine cleanliness evaluation rely on the detection of specific biomolecules, thus requiring more than one test for broad-range screening. Herein, the modulation of the catalytic [...] Read more.
Hygiene assessment in industrial and clinical environments is crucial in the prevention of health risks. Current technologies for routine cleanliness evaluation rely on the detection of specific biomolecules, thus requiring more than one test for broad-range screening. Herein, the modulation of the catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by biomacromolecules was employed to develop a nanoplasmonic platform for general hygiene screening. AuNPs were immobilized on cellulose paper by simple adsorption. When ferricyanide was dispensed onto the paper, the AuNPs catalysed the ferricyanide’s dissociation, releasing free cyanide ions that dissolved them. The AuNP dissolution produced an intense colour shift detectable with the naked eye. When biomacromolecules (e.g., proteins and polysaccharides) were present, they spontaneously attached to AuNPs, forming a biomolecular corona (biocorona), reducing their catalytic activity until complete suppression when the NPs were fully covered by molecules. The concentration-dependent decrease in the catalytic activity was here used to quantify biomacromolecules and complex samples such as milk, eggs, soy sauce and yeast extract (in 20 min), with detection limits comparable to those of standard methods, i.e., 0.25 µg mL−1 for albumin. This nano-enabled technology may be applied as a broad-range (unspecific) alert system for inexpensive cleanliness evaluation, with potential applications in sensitive sectors including productive industries and hospitals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomechanical and Optical Biosensors)
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Review

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Review
Recent Advances in Aflatoxins Detection Based on Nanomaterials
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1626; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091626 - 19 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 910
Abstract
Aflatoxins are the secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus and are highly toxic and carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic. Ingestion of crops and food contaminated by aflatoxins causes extremely serious harm to human and animal health. Therefore, there is an urgent need [...] Read more.
Aflatoxins are the secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus and are highly toxic and carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic. Ingestion of crops and food contaminated by aflatoxins causes extremely serious harm to human and animal health. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a selective, sensitive and simple method for the determination of aflatoxins. Due to their high performance and multipurpose characteristics, nanomaterials have been developed and applied to the monitoring of various targets, overcoming the limitations of traditional methods, which include process complexity, time-consuming and laborious methodologies and the need for expensive instruments. At the same time, nanomaterials provide general promise for the detection of aflatoxins with high sensitivity, selectivity and simplicity. This review provides an overview of recent developments in nanomaterials employed for the detection of aflatoxins. The basic aspects of aflatoxin toxicity and the significance of aflatoxin detection are also reviewed. In addition, the development of different biosensors and nanomaterials for aflatoxin detection is introduced. The current capabilities and limitations and future challenges in aflatoxin detection and analysis are also addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomechanical and Optical Biosensors)
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