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Comparison of Sensory and Electronic Tongue Analysis Combined with HS-SPME-GC-MS in the Evaluation of Skim Milk Processed with Different Preheating Treatments

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, Beijing Engineering and Technology Research Center of Food Additives, Beijing Higher Institution Engineering Research Center of Food Additives and Ingredients, Beijing Technology & Business University, Beijing 100048, China
School of Food and Biological Engineering, Shanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi′an 710021, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(9), 1650;
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 26 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Volatile and Odor Compounds in Food)
PDF [2974 KB, uploaded 26 April 2019]


It is well known that the flavor of skim milk is inferior to whole milk due to the lack of fat. With the popularity of low-fat dairy products, improving the flavor of skim milk is a main focus for food scientists. During the production of skim milk, preheating treatments have a significant effect for the flavor of skim milk. In this study, to explore the optimal processing conditions, milk was preheated at 30 °C, 40 °C, 50 °C, 60 °C for 30 min prior to defatting. When the optimal temperature was determined, milk was then preheated at the optimal temperature for 10 min, 20 min, 30 min, 40 min and 50 min, respectively, to obtain the best preheating time. Distinctions between skim milk samples with different processing conditions were studied by sensory evaluation, e-tongue and HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis. Principle components analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were selected to associate with e-tongue results and compare the similarities and differences among the skim milks. Sensory and e-tongue results matched and both showed that a preheating temperature of 50 °C and 30 min time might be the optimal combination of processing conditions. Thirteen volatiles, including ketones, acids, aldehydes, alcohols, alkanes and sulfur compounds, were analyzed to evaluate flavor of the skim milks produced by different preheating treatments. Combined with previous studies, the results indicated that most volatile compounds were decreased by reducing the fat concentration and the typical compound 2-heptanone was not detected in our skim milk samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: skim milk; sensory; volatile compounds; preheat treatment; PCA skim milk; sensory; volatile compounds; preheat treatment; PCA

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Pan, M.; Tong, L.; Chi, X.; Ai, N.; Cao, Y.; Sun, B. Comparison of Sensory and Electronic Tongue Analysis Combined with HS-SPME-GC-MS in the Evaluation of Skim Milk Processed with Different Preheating Treatments. Molecules 2019, 24, 1650.

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