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Special Issue "Wine Chemistry: The Key behind Wine Quality"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Analytical Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 March 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Rocio Gil-Muñoz
Website
Guest Editor
Instituto Murciano de Investigacion y Desarrollo Agrario y Alimentario, La Alberca, Spain
Interests: wine; grape; phenolic compounds; volatile compounds; ochratoxin A; biogenic amines
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Encarna Gómez-Plaza
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Food Science and Technology, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain
Interests: wine; fining agents; phenolic compounds; volatile compounds; organoleptic properties; tannins; wine stabilization
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wine is a surprisingly complex chemical mixture. It is 97% water and ethanol, but each bottle also contains thousands of different molecules, ranging from acids and sugars to phenolic compounds and aroma compounds.

Wine chemistry is an important tool that enables enologists to ensure quality and consistency. The wine chemistry is based on grape biochemistry; the chemistry of the transformations mediated by yeast and bacterial metabolism during winemaking; the changes occurring during maturation, aging, and post-bottling; and even the changes in our glass, when pouring the wine. Wine chemistry is also the key to guaranteeing the traceability of wine production, to preserve the quality and knowledge of the whole winemaking process from vineyard to bottle

Nowadays, the existence of instrumental techniques able to generate combined information from multiple sources on the wine matrix, the metabolomic approach, together with chemometrics, is an important factor in the study of wine chemistry. Furthermore, in recent years, emphasis has been placed on fast and nondestructive instrumental methods based on spectral measurements using molecular spectroscopy such as IR and fluorescence for fingerprinting of wines.

This Special issue is dedicated to the most recent research aimed at understanding how viticultural and enological practices influence grape and wine chemistry, how wine chemistry can help to fingerprint wines and improve their traceability, and going even further, how this chemical composition can be linked to sensory properties.

Dr. Rocio Gil-Muñoz
Prof. Dr. Encarna Gómez-Plaza
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • aroma
  • color
  • wine aging
  • oxygen management
  • phenolic compounds
  • polysaccharides
  • nitrogen compounds
  • metabolomic
  • instrumental analysis

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Platelet and Anti-Oxidant Activity of Wine Extracts Prepared from Ten Different Grape Varieties
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5054; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25215054 - 30 Oct 2020
Abstract
Inflammation, thrombosis and oxidative stress are rarely studied together when wine’s biological activity is concerned; hence the existing literature lacks a holistic point of view in the biological outcome. The scope of the present study is to parallel evaluate the effect of wine [...] Read more.
Inflammation, thrombosis and oxidative stress are rarely studied together when wine’s biological activity is concerned; hence the existing literature lacks a holistic point of view in the biological outcome. The scope of the present study is to parallel evaluate the effect of wine extracts on those mechanisms. Ten wine varieties and two different extraction methods were used leading to five extracts for each wine: total lipids (TL) and fractions with different phenolic compound classes (FI, FII, FIII and FIV). Their effect on oxidative stress, platelet aggregation and the secretion of cytokines from mononuclear cells was measured and a biological score was calculated. FII of white wines is the most potent extract and the extracts FIII and TL are following. Specifically, FII had higher anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory score while all three fractions had a similar anti-platelet score. Furthermore, FII and FIII extracts were the most potent red wine extracts and revealed the highest anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory scores. White wine FII extracts were more potent than the red wine ones while FI and FIV extracts of red wine were more potent than the white wine ones. In conclusion, the protective effect of a wine is independent of its color but is strongly associated with its microconstituents profile. FII extract revealed the highest biological score and further examination is needed in order to identify the compounds that are responsible for the aforementioned actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Chemistry: The Key behind Wine Quality)
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Open AccessArticle
Volatile Profile Characterization of Croatian Commercial Sparkling Wines
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4349; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184349 - 22 Sep 2020
Abstract
Commercial sparkling wine production represents a relatively low but important part of the Croatian wine production, especially in the Zagreb county. This study presents the results of volatile aroma compounds profile and organic acid composition of commercial sparkling wine samples from three vine-growing [...] Read more.
Commercial sparkling wine production represents a relatively low but important part of the Croatian wine production, especially in the Zagreb county. This study presents the results of volatile aroma compounds profile and organic acid composition of commercial sparkling wine samples from three vine-growing regions in Zagreb county. In total, 174 volatile aroma compounds were identified, separated between their chemical classes (aldehydes, higher alcohols, volatile phenols, terpenes, C13-norisoprenoids, lactones, esters, fatty acids, sulfur compounds, other compounds, other alcohols). Higher alcohols such as phenylethyl and isoamyl alcohol as well as 2-methyl-1-butanol, and esters such as diethyl succinate, ethyl hydrogensuccinate, and ethyl lactate had the strongest impact on the volatile compounds profile of Zagreb county sparkling wine. The presence of diethyl glutarate and diethyl malonate, compounds whose concentrations are influenced by yeast autolysis or caused by chemical esterification during the ageing process, was also noted. The influence of every single volatile aroma compound was evaluated by discriminant analysis using forward stepwise model. The volatile profiles of traditional sparkling wines from Croatia were presented for the first time. It is hoped the results will contribute to better understanding the quality potential and to evaluate possible differences on the bases of detected aroma concentrations and multivariate analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Chemistry: The Key behind Wine Quality)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Temperature and Ethanol on Proanthocyanidin Adsorption to Grape Cell Wall Material in the Presence of Anthocyanins
Molecules 2020, 25(18), 4139; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25184139 - 10 Sep 2020
Abstract
The quantitative and qualitative impacts of anthocyanins on proanthocyanidin adsorption to grape-derived cell wall material were investigated in fifteen unique systems of varying temperatures, ethanol concentrations, and proanthocyanidin concentrations. Proanthocyanidin solutions were exposed to cell wall material and monitored for changes in concentration [...] Read more.
The quantitative and qualitative impacts of anthocyanins on proanthocyanidin adsorption to grape-derived cell wall material were investigated in fifteen unique systems of varying temperatures, ethanol concentrations, and proanthocyanidin concentrations. Proanthocyanidin solutions were exposed to cell wall material and monitored for changes in concentration over 24 h. Increases in both temperature and ethanol resulted in a larger retention of proanthocyanidins in solution and typically faster adsorption kinetics. Analysis of the solution after exposure to cell wall revealed a significant reduction in the molecular weight of proanthocyanidins present in solution, suggesting that anthocyanins do not alter a previously described mechanism of preferentially binding large molecular weight molecules. Additionally, a reduction in polymeric pigment abundance was noted in most conditions, suggesting rapid formation of polymeric pigment in the model solution and preferential adsorption of the polymeric pigment to cell wall material. Compared to a previous study of proanthocyanidin adsorption in the absence of anthocyanins, a significantly larger percentage of proanthocyanidin material was lost via adsorption—up to 70% of available material. In a winemaking context, this may suggest a preferential loss of polymeric pigment via adsorption to cap cell wall material compared to non-pigmented proanthocyanidins and free anthocyanins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Chemistry: The Key behind Wine Quality)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: The direct effect of β-ionone and β-damascenone on sensory perception of Pinot noir wine aroma
Authors: Elizabeth Tomasino
Affiliation: Food Science & Technology, OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY 100 Wiegand Hall Corvallis, OR 97331
Abstract: There has been much work on how the norisoprenoids, β-damscenone and β-ionone, impact aroma perception in wine. These compounds are formed in the grape and are associated with sunlight exposure and ripening in the vineyard. Both these compounds have low perception thresholds and are typically found at low concentrations in wine. Research has shown that β-damscenone may be an aroma enhancers, influencing the berry fruit aromas in red wines and β-ionone may influence floral aromas in wine. However, there is a specific anosmia associated with β-ionone perception which may impact the potential contribution of this compound to wine quality. This study aimed to determine how β-damscenone and β-ionone effected Pinot noir wine quality, specifically if it was the same no matter the Pinot noir wine. We also addressed the issue with β-ionone perception by first screening sensory panelists for their sensitivity to β-ionone. Individuals that could perceived β-ionone at all concentrations were included in the study. Triangle tests were used to determine if panelists could distinguish wines with various levels of β-damscenone and β-ionone in three different Pinot noir wine matrices. Results showed that β-ionone perception was the same across the three different wine matrices at. Perception of β-damscenone varied based on concentration and wine matrix. Additional sensory tests were conducted to determine if the differences in β-damscenone perception were due to volatile or non-volatile compound interactions. The variation in β-damscenone perception was found to be due to interactions with other aroma compounds are were not influenced by nonvolatile differences in wine. Descriptive analysis showed that these two compounds influence the fruity and floral aromas in wine, although increasing concentration above what is presently found in Pinot noir had a negative impact to wine aroma quality. This study shows that perception of specific compounds in wine may not be uniformly applied to all types of wine and that norisoprenoids do impact Pinot noir aroma at concentrations found in wine and therefore wine processing that alters the concentrations of these in Pinot noir may affect the fruity and floral qualities of a wine.

Title: Wine polyphenol content and their influence on wine quality and properties: A review
Authors: Rocio Gutiérrez-Escobar, María José Aliaño-González*, Emma Cantos-Villar
Affiliation: Instituto de Investigación y Formación Agraria y Pesquera (IFAPA), Consejería de Agricultura, Ganadería, Pesca y Desarrollo Sostenible, Rancho de la Merced, Ctra. Cañada de la Loba, CA‐3102 km 3.1, 11471 Jerez de la Frontera, Spain
Abstract: Wine is one of the food products most consumed around the world. For the last years, multiple kinds of research have been performed for increasing wine quality based on color, flavor, or aroma management. Polyphenols are natural compounds that have been proved to be highly related to both i) wine quality and ii) health benefits associated with wine such as antioxidant, anti-cancer, antibiotic, or anti-inflammatory. In the current review, the role of polyphenols in wine composition and sensory properties are updated. The effect of pre-fermentative, fermentative, and post-fermentative techniques to modulate the phenolic composition of wine is revised. Additionally, health-promoting wine properties are also reported. Finally, the different analytical techniques used for polyphenol detection and quantification. The main objective of this research is to establish the influence of polyphenols on wine quality and how the different factors and techniques may be useful to obtain the desired parameters in wine.

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