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Special Issue "Frontiers of Antimicrobial Nanoparticles"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Franco Dosio

Department of Drug Science and Technology, University of Torino, Torino, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +390116707082
Interests: nanotechnology in drug delivery; targeted drug delivery; liposomes; polymeric nanoparticles; self-assembling nanosystems; anticancer agents; antimicrobial agents

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Infectious disease still represents a significant challenge in health care, being one of the major causes of mortality in the world. In addition, the use of many conventional drugs is hampered by a lack of efficacy, emergence of resistance, adverse effects, and high costs. In this context, nanotechnology plays a key role in improving the efficacy of existing drugs by the use of nanoengineered drug delivery systems. Nevertheless, other relevant applications of nanoparticles are found in antibacterial coatings for implantable devices and medicinal materials to prevent infection and promote wound healing, as well as in bacterial detection systems. This Special Issue is aimed at covering recent advances in the synthesis, assembly, mechanistic understanding and uses of nanotechnology applied to the development of novel systems for the prevention, detection and treatment of microbial infections.  

Several classes of antimicrobial nanosystems are discussed:

Antibacterial polymers

Antimicrobial drug delivery systems

Inorganic-polymer hybrid nanoparticles

Antibacterial coating

Prof. Franco Dosio
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Polymer nanoparticles
  • Antimicrobial agents
  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • Inorganic nanosystems

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Silver(I) Complexes of the Pharmaceutical Agents Metronidazole and 4-Hydroxymethylpyridine: Comparison of Cytotoxic Profile for Potential Clinical Application
Molecules 2019, 24(10), 1949; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24101949
Received: 13 May 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 21 May 2019
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Abstract
In previous papers, we have reported on the high antifungal and significant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria of the water-soluble silver(I) complexes of metronidazole and derivatives of pyridine compared to silver nitrate. In the present study, the cytotoxic activity of the [...] Read more.
In previous papers, we have reported on the high antifungal and significant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria of the water-soluble silver(I) complexes of metronidazole and derivatives of pyridine compared to silver nitrate. In the present study, the cytotoxic activity of the silver(I) complexes of metronidazole and 4-hydroxymethylpyridine was compared with that of silver nitrate. Metronidazole and 4-hydroxymethylpyridine were investigated using Balb/c 3T3 and HepG2 cell lines in order to evaluate the potential clinical application of silver(I) complexes. The cells were exposed for 72 h to compounds at eight concentrations. The cytotoxic concentrations (IC50) of the study compounds were assessed within four biochemical endpoints: mitochondrial activity, lysosomal activity, cellular membrane integrity, and total protein content. The investigated silver(I) complexes displayed comparable cytotoxicity to that of silver nitrate used in clinics. Mean cytotoxic concentrations calculated for investigated silver(I) complexes from concentration–response curves ranged from 2.13 to 26.5 µM. HepG2 cells were less sensitive to the tested complexes compared to fibroblasts (Balb/c 3T3). However, the most affected endpoint for HepG2 cells was cellular membrane damage. The cytotoxicity of both silver complexes was comparable for Balb/c 3T3 cells. The cytotoxic potential of the new silver(I) compounds compared to that of silver nitrate used in medicine indicates that they are safe and could be used in clinical practice. The presented results are yet more stimulating to further studies that evaluate the therapeutic use of silver complexes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers of Antimicrobial Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle
Bacteria Death and Osteoblast Metabolic Activity Correlated to Hydrothermally Synthesised TiO2 Surface Properties
Molecules 2019, 24(7), 1201; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24071201
Received: 25 January 2019 / Revised: 18 March 2019 / Accepted: 25 March 2019 / Published: 27 March 2019
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Abstract
Orthopaedic surgery comes with an inherent risk of bacterial infection, prolonged antibiotic therapy and revision surgery. Recent research has focused on nanostructured surfaces to improve the bactericidal and osseointegrational properties of implants. However, an understanding of the mechanical properties of bactericidal materials is [...] Read more.
Orthopaedic surgery comes with an inherent risk of bacterial infection, prolonged antibiotic therapy and revision surgery. Recent research has focused on nanostructured surfaces to improve the bactericidal and osseointegrational properties of implants. However, an understanding of the mechanical properties of bactericidal materials is lacking. In this work, the surface properties of hydrothermal TiO2 nanostructured surfaces are investigated for their effect on bactericidal efficiency and cellular metabolic activity of human osteoblast cells. TiO2 nanostructures, approximately 307 nm in height and 14 GPa stiffness, were the most effective structures against both gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria. Statistical analysis significantly correlated structure height to the death of both bacteria strains. In addition, the surface contact angle and Young’s modulus were correlated to osteoblast metabolic activity. Hydrophilic surfaces with a contact angle between 35 and 50° produced the highest cellular metabolic activity rates after 24 h of incubation. The mechanical tests showed that nanostructures retain their mechanical stability and integrity over a long time-period, reaffirming the surfaces’ applicability for implants. This work provides a thorough examination of the surface, mechanical and wettability properties of multifunctional hydrothermally synthesised nanostructured materials, capable of killing bacteria whilst improving osteoblast metabolic rates, leading to improved osseointegration and antibacterial properties of orthopaedic implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers of Antimicrobial Nanoparticles)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
How Melittin Inserts into Cell Membrane: Conformational Changes, Inter-Peptide Cooperation, and Disturbance on the Membrane
Molecules 2019, 24(9), 1775; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091775
Received: 12 April 2019 / Revised: 2 May 2019 / Accepted: 3 May 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
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Abstract
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), as a key component of the immune defense systems of organisms, are a promising solution to the serious threat of drug-resistant bacteria to public health. As one of the most representative and extensively studied AMPs, melittin has exceptional broad-spectrum activities [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), as a key component of the immune defense systems of organisms, are a promising solution to the serious threat of drug-resistant bacteria to public health. As one of the most representative and extensively studied AMPs, melittin has exceptional broad-spectrum activities against microorganisms, including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Unfortunately, the action mechanism of melittin with bacterial membranes, especially the underlying physics of peptide-induced membrane poration behaviors, is still poorly understood, which hampers efforts to develop melittin-based drugs or agents for clinical applications. In this mini-review, we focus on recent advances with respect to the membrane insertion behavior of melittin mostly from a computational aspect. Membrane insertion is a prerequisite and key step for forming transmembrane pores and bacterial killing by melittin, whose occurrence is based on overcoming a high free-energy barrier during the transition of melittin molecules from a membrane surface-binding state to a transmembrane-inserting state. Here, intriguing simulation results on such transition are highlighted from both kinetic and thermodynamic aspects. The conformational changes and inter-peptide cooperation of melittin molecules, as well as melittin-induced disturbances to membrane structure, such as deformation and lipid extraction, are regarded as key factors influencing the insertion of peptides into membranes. The associated intermediate states in peptide conformations, lipid arrangements, membrane structure, and mechanical properties during this process are specifically discussed. Finally, potential strategies for enhancing the poration ability and improving the antimicrobial performance of AMPs are included as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers of Antimicrobial Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessReview
Antimicrobial Nanoparticles Incorporated in Edible Coatings and Films for the Preservation of Fruits and Vegetables
Molecules 2019, 24(9), 1695; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091695
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 29 April 2019 / Published: 30 April 2019
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Abstract
Edible coatings and films (ECF) are employed as matrixes for incorporating antimicrobial nanoparticles (NPs), and then they are applied on the fruits and vegetables to prolong shelf life and enhance storage quality. This paper provides a comprehensive review on the preparation, antimicrobial properties [...] Read more.
Edible coatings and films (ECF) are employed as matrixes for incorporating antimicrobial nanoparticles (NPs), and then they are applied on the fruits and vegetables to prolong shelf life and enhance storage quality. This paper provides a comprehensive review on the preparation, antimicrobial properties and mechanisms, surface and physical qualities of ECF containing antimicrobial NPs, and its efficient application to vegetables and fruits as well. Following an introduction on the properties of the main edible coating materials, the preparation technologies of ECF with NPs are summarized. The antimicrobial activity of ECF with NPs against the tested microorganism was observed by many researchers. This might be mainly due to the electrostatic interaction between the cationic polymer or free metal ions and the charged cell membrane, the photocatalytic reaction of NPs, the detachment of free metal ion, and partly due to the antimicrobial activity of edible materials. Moreover, their physical, mechanical and releasing properties are discussed in detail, which might be influenced by the concentration of NPs. The preservation potential on the quality of fruits and vegetables indicates that various ECF with NPs might be used as the ideal materials for food application. Following the introduction on these characteristics, an attempt is made to predict future trends in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers of Antimicrobial Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessReview
Application of Antimicrobial Nanoparticles in Dentistry
Molecules 2019, 24(6), 1033; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061033
Received: 20 February 2019 / Revised: 3 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
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Abstract
Oral cavity incessantly encounters a plethora of microorganisms. Plaque biofilm—a major cause of caries, periodontitis and other dental diseases—is a complex community of bacteria or fungi that causes infection by protecting pathogenic microorganisms from external drug agents and escaping the host defense mechanisms. [...] Read more.
Oral cavity incessantly encounters a plethora of microorganisms. Plaque biofilm—a major cause of caries, periodontitis and other dental diseases—is a complex community of bacteria or fungi that causes infection by protecting pathogenic microorganisms from external drug agents and escaping the host defense mechanisms. Antimicrobial nanoparticles are promising because of several advantages such as ultra-small sizes, large surface-area-to-mass ratio and special physical and chemical properties. To better summarize explorations of antimicrobial nanoparticles and provide directions for future studies, we present the following critical review. The keywords “nanoparticle,” “anti-infective or antibacterial or antimicrobial” and “dentistry” were retrieved from Pubmed, Scopus, Embase and Web of Science databases in the last five years. A total of 172 articles met the requirements were included and discussed in this review. The results show that superior antibacterial properties of nanoparticle biomaterials bring broad prospects in the oral field. This review presents the development, applications and underneath mechanisms of antibacterial nanoparticles in dentistry including restorative dentistry, endodontics, implantology, orthodontics, dental prostheses and periodontal field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers of Antimicrobial Nanoparticles)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Application of Antimicrobial Nanoparticles in Dentistry
Author: Shaohua Ge
Affiliation: Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Tissue Regeneration,Department of Periodontology,School of Stomatology, Shandong University,Jinan,China
Abstract: Oral cavity incessantly encounters a plethora of microorganisms. Plaque biofilm, as a major cause of caries, periodontitis and other dental diseases, is a complex community composed of bacteria or fungi that cause infection by protecting pathogenic microorganisms from external drug agents and escaping the host defense mechanisms. Although lots of studies focus on developing antimicrobial agents to overcome this problem, most of these attempts fail to achieve desired outcomes because the rapid degradation and fast release of antibacterial agents cause low efficiency and safety concerns. Nanoparticles with their enhanced and unique physicochemical properties such as ultrasmall sizes, large surface area/mass ratio and increased chemical reactivity, are promising in antibacterial therapies. Similarly, nanoparticles provide a new strategy for treating and preventing dental infections due to their special physical and chemical properties. This article presents a comprehensive review on the development, application and underneath mechanisms of antibacterial nanoparticles in dentistry including endodontics, periodontics, oral surgery, orthodontics and prosthetic fields.
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