Special Issue "Carbon Capture and Storage via Mineral Carbonation"

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Juerg M. Matter

National Oceanography Center Southampton, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO14 3ZH, UK
E-Mail
Interests: carbon capture and storage; low-temperature water rock reactions; reactive transport modelling; hydrogeology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation leads to permanent and secure storage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide can be injected into the Earth’s subsurface and locked up as carbonate minerals through chemical reactions with calcium, magnesium and iron silicates minerals (i.e., in situ mineralization). Alternatively, these silicate minerals can be mined, processed and converted to carbonate minerals in a reactor system (i.e., ex situ mineralization).

During the past few years, mineral carbonation as a carbon capture and storage technique has observed increasing interest. Mineral carbonation leads to permanent and secure storage of carbon dioxide. CO2 can be injected into the Earth’s subsurface and locked up as carbonate minerals through chemical reactions with calcium, magnesium and iron-rich silicate minerals (i.e., in-situ mineralization). Alternatively, these silicate minerals can be mined or mine tailings, rich in these minerals, can be processed and converted to carbonate minerals in a reactor system on the surface (i.e., ex-situ mineralization).

This Special Issue provides a timely opportunity to report on recent progress in carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation. We welcome papers providing experimental and computer simulation data on mineral carbonation (ex-situ and in-situ), including but not limited to, topics such as mineral dissolution, mineral precipitation, reactive transport, geomechanics related to mineral carbonation, and microbial effects on mineral carbonation. We are also interested in the engineering approaches that lead to the upscaling of mineral carbonation (ex-situ or in-situ).

Dr. Juerg M. Matter
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • CO2 capture and storage
  • mafic and ultramafic rocks carbonation
  • mine tailings
  • in-situ mineral carbonation
  • ex-situ mineral carbonation
  • mineral dissolution kinetics
  • mineral precipitation kinetics

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Mineral Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide in Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Boiler Bottom Ash
Minerals 2017, 7(12), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/min7120237
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 29 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (15102 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper investigates the mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide in circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boiler bottom ash. CFBC bottom ash, which originated from two sources, was prepared along with pulverized coal-fired (PC) boiler bottom ash as a control. These ashes were exposed [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide in circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boiler bottom ash. CFBC bottom ash, which originated from two sources, was prepared along with pulverized coal-fired (PC) boiler bottom ash as a control. These ashes were exposed to accelerated carbonation conditions at a relative humidity of 40% and 100%, in order to investigate the effects of humidity on the carbonation kinetics of the bottom ash. The obtained results showed that not only lime but other calcium-bearing phases (gehlenite, wollastonite, and brownmillerite) in CFBC bottom ash participated in the mineral carbonation reaction. In particular, these phases underwent hydration in a wet carbonation environment, whereby the carbon dioxide uptake and capacity of CFBC bottom ash are significantly enhanced. This study may have important implications, demonstrating the feasibility of carbon dioxide sequestration and recycling of CFBC boiler bottom ash. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage via Mineral Carbonation)
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Open AccessArticle
CO2 Mineralization Using Brine Discharged from a Seawater Desalination Plant
Minerals 2017, 7(11), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/min7110207
Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2628 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
CO2 mineralization is a method of sequestering CO2 in the form of carbonated minerals. Brine discharged from seawater desalination is a potential source of Mg and Ca, which can precipitate CO2 as forms of their carbonate minerals. The concentration of [...] Read more.
CO2 mineralization is a method of sequestering CO2 in the form of carbonated minerals. Brine discharged from seawater desalination is a potential source of Mg and Ca, which can precipitate CO2 as forms of their carbonate minerals. The concentration of Mg and Ca in brine are twice those in the seawater influent to desalination process. This study used a cycle for CO2 mineralization that involves an increase in the pH of the brine, followed by CO2 bubbling, and, finally, filtration. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that non-synthesized brine from a seawater desalination plant has been used for CO2 mineralization. The resulting precipitates were CaCO3 (calcite), Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O (hydromagnesite), and NaCl (halite) with these materials being identified by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermo gravimetric-differentail thermal Analysis (TGA)-DTA. Despite the presence of Ca with Mg in brine being unfavorable for the precipitation of Mg carbonate, Mg reacted with CO2 to form hydromagnesite at a yield of 86%. Most of the Ca formed calcite, at 99% yield. This study empirically demonstrates that brine from seawater desalination plants can be used for CO2 mineralization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage via Mineral Carbonation)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Deployment of Microbial Mineral Carbonation at an Asbestos Mine: Potential Applications to Carbon Storage and Tailings Stabilization
Minerals 2017, 7(10), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/min7100191
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 19 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 October 2017 / Published: 12 October 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (9665 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A microbial mineral carbonation trial was conducted at the Woodsreef Asbestos Mine (NSW, Australia) to test cyanobacteria-accelerated Mg-carbonate mineral precipitation in mine tailings. The experiment aimed to produce a carbonate crust on the tailings pile surface using atmospheric carbon dioxide and magnesium from [...] Read more.
A microbial mineral carbonation trial was conducted at the Woodsreef Asbestos Mine (NSW, Australia) to test cyanobacteria-accelerated Mg-carbonate mineral precipitation in mine tailings. The experiment aimed to produce a carbonate crust on the tailings pile surface using atmospheric carbon dioxide and magnesium from serpentine minerals (asbestiform chrysotile; Mg3Si2O5(OH)4) and brucite [Mg(OH)2]. The crust would serve two purposes: Sequestering carbon and stabilizing the hazardous tailings. Two plots (0.5 m3) on the tailings pile were treated with sulfuric acid prior to one plot being inoculated with a cyanobacteria-dominated consortium enriched from the mine pit lakes. After 11 weeks, mineral abundances in control and treated tailings were quantified by Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction data. Both treated plots possessed pyroaurite [Mg6Fe2(CO3)(OH)16·4H2O] at 2 cm depth, made visible by its orange-red color. The inoculated plot exhibited an increase in the hydromagnesite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O] content from 2–4 cm depth. The degree of mineral carbonation was limited compared to previous experiments, revealing the difficulty of transitioning from laboratory conditions to mine-site mineral carbonation. Water and carbon availability were limiting factors for mineral carbonation. Overcoming these limitations and enhancing microbial activity could make microbial carbonation a viable strategy for carbon sequestration in mine tailings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage via Mineral Carbonation)
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Open AccessArticle
The Force of Crystallization and Fracture Propagation during In-Situ Carbonation of Peridotite
Minerals 2017, 7(10), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/min7100190
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 October 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (42507 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Subsurface mineralization of CO2 by injection into (hydro-)fractured peridotites has been proposed as a carbon sequestration method. It is envisaged that the expansion in solid volume associated with the mineralization reaction leads to a build-up of stress, resulting in the opening of [...] Read more.
Subsurface mineralization of CO2 by injection into (hydro-)fractured peridotites has been proposed as a carbon sequestration method. It is envisaged that the expansion in solid volume associated with the mineralization reaction leads to a build-up of stress, resulting in the opening of further fractures. We performed CO2-mineralization experiments on simulated fractures in peridotite materials under confined, hydrothermal conditions, to directly measure the induced stresses. Only one of these experiments resulted in the development of a stress, which was less than 5% of the theoretical maximum. We also performed one method control test in which we measured stress development during the hydration of MgO. Based on microstructural observations, as well as XRD and TGA measurements, we infer that, due to pore clogging and grain boundary healing at growing mineral interfaces, the transport of CO2, water and solutes into these sites inhibited reaction-related stress development. When grain boundary healing was impeded by the precipitation of silica, a small stress did develop. This implies that when applied to in-situ CO2-storage, the mineralization reaction will be limited by transport through clogged fractures, and proceed at a rate that is likely too slow for the process to accommodate the volumes of CO2 expected for sequestration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage via Mineral Carbonation)
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Open AccessArticle
CO2 Absorption and Magnesium Carbonate Precipitation in MgCl2–NH3–NH4Cl Solutions: Implications for Carbon Capture and Storage
Minerals 2017, 7(9), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/min7090172
Received: 23 August 2017 / Revised: 5 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4330 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
CO2 absorption and carbonate precipitation are the two core processes controlling the reaction rate and path of CO2 mineral sequestration. Whereas previous studies have focused on testing reactive crystallization and precipitation kinetics, much less attention has been paid to absorption, the [...] Read more.
CO2 absorption and carbonate precipitation are the two core processes controlling the reaction rate and path of CO2 mineral sequestration. Whereas previous studies have focused on testing reactive crystallization and precipitation kinetics, much less attention has been paid to absorption, the key process determining the removal efficiency of CO2. In this study, adopting a novel wetted wall column reactor, we systematically explore the rates and mechanisms of carbon transformation from CO2 gas to carbonates in MgCl2–NH3–NH4Cl solutions. We find that reactive diffusion in liquid film of the wetted wall column is the rate-limiting step of CO2 absorption when proceeding chiefly through interactions between CO2(aq) and NH3(aq). We further quantified the reaction kinetic constant of the CO2–NH3 reaction. Our results indicate that higher initial concentration of NH4Cl ( 2 mol · L 1 ) leads to the precipitation of roguinite [ ( NH 4 ) 2 Mg ( CO 3 ) 2 · 4 H 2 O ], while nesquehonite appears to be the dominant Mg-carbonate without NH4Cl addition. We also noticed dypingite formation via phase transformation in hot water. This study provides new insight into the reaction kinetics of CO2 mineral carbonation that indicates the potential of this technique for future application to industrial-scale CO2 sequestration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage via Mineral Carbonation)
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Open AccessArticle
Connecting the Morphological and Crystal Structural Changes during the Conversion of Lithium Hydroxide Monohydrate to Lithium Carbonate Using Multi-Scale X-ray Scattering Measurements
Minerals 2017, 7(9), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/min7090169
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 10 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3360 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
While CO2 storage technologies via carbon mineralization have focused on the use of earth-abundant calcium- and magnesium-bearing minerals, there is an emerging interest in the scalable synthesis of alternative carbonates such as lithium carbonate. Lithium carbonate is the carbonated end-product of lithium [...] Read more.
While CO2 storage technologies via carbon mineralization have focused on the use of earth-abundant calcium- and magnesium-bearing minerals, there is an emerging interest in the scalable synthesis of alternative carbonates such as lithium carbonate. Lithium carbonate is the carbonated end-product of lithium hydroxide, a highly reactive sorbent for CO2 capture in spacecraft and submarines. Other emerging applications include tuning the morphology of lithium carbonates synthesized from the effluent of treated Li-bearing batteries, which can then be reused in ceramics, glasses, and batteries. In this study, in operando Ultra-Small-Angle, Small-Angle, and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering (USAXS/SAXS/WAXS) measurements were used to link the morphological and crystal structural changes as lithium hydroxide monohydrate is converted to lithium carbonate. The experiments were performed in a flow-through reactor at PCO2 of 1 atm and at temperatures in the range of 25–500 °C. The dehydration of lithium hydroxide monohydrate to form lithium hydroxide occurs in the temperature range of 25–150 °C, while the onset of carbonate formation is evident at around 70 °C. A reduction in the nanoparticle size and an increase in the surface area were noted during the dehydration of lithium hydroxide monohydrate. Lithium carbonate formation increases the nanoparticle size and reduces the surface area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage via Mineral Carbonation)
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