Special Issue "Comminution in the Minerals Industry"

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Processing and Metallurgy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 August 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Luís Marcelo M. Tavares
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Guest Editor
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro-UFRJ, Caixa Postal 68505, CEP 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
Interests: mineral processing; modeling; simulation; comminution; physical concentration; coal preparation; discrete element method; degradation during handling; particle breakage

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Size reduction processes, which encompass crushing and grinding, represent a significant part of the capital as well as of the operational cost in ore processing. Improving and further understanding such processes is worthwhile, since any measurable improvement may lead to benefits to the process, be they a reduction in energy consumption, wear, or improved performance in downstream processes. Contributions dealing with the various aspects of comminution are encouraged, including understanding of ore breakage, modeling, simulation, control, plant practice, novel comminution and ore pretreatment technologies, as well as downstream implications of comminution processes.

Prof. Dr. Luís Marcelo M. Tavares
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Minerals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • crushing
  • grinding
  • fragmentation
  • particle breakage
  • pre-weakening
  • milling
  • cone crushing
  • modeling
  • simulation
  • ball milling
  • semi-autogenous milling
  • autogenous milling
  • roller pressing
  • roll crushing
  • impact crushing
  • ultrafine grinding

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Confined Bed Breakage of Fine Iron Ore Concentrates
Minerals 2020, 10(8), 666; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10080666 - 27 Jul 2020
Abstract
High-pressure grinding rolls (HPGR) have gained great popularity in the mining industry in the last 25 years or so. One of the first successful applications of the technology has been in iron ore pressing prior to pelletization. Piston-and-die tests can provide good insights [...] Read more.
High-pressure grinding rolls (HPGR) have gained great popularity in the mining industry in the last 25 years or so. One of the first successful applications of the technology has been in iron ore pressing prior to pelletization. Piston-and-die tests can provide good insights on the material response in an HPGR. This work analyzed confined bed breakage of four iron ore concentrates under different conditions. Saturation in breakage of particles contained in the top size in the tests was observed to occur at specific energies of about 2 kWh/t, whereas full saturation in breakage, with no additional increase in specific surface area of the material, occurred at energies above about 6 kWh/t. An expression was proposed to characterize the propensity of a material to break under confined bed conditions. The phenomenology involved in confined bed breakage of such materials was then analyzed in light of the results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comminution in the Minerals Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Grinding Behaviors of Components in Heterogeneous Breakage of Coals of Different Ash Contents in a Ball-and-Race Mill
Minerals 2020, 10(3), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10030230 - 03 Mar 2020
Abstract
Coals used for power plants normally have different ash contents, and the breakage of coals by the ball-and-race mill or roller mill is an energy-intensive process. Grinding phenomena in mill of power plants is complex, and it is also not the same with [...] Read more.
Coals used for power plants normally have different ash contents, and the breakage of coals by the ball-and-race mill or roller mill is an energy-intensive process. Grinding phenomena in mill of power plants is complex, and it is also not the same with ideal grinding tests in labs. The interaction among various coals would result in changes of grinding behaviors and energy consumption characterization if compared with those of single breakage. In this study, anthracite and bituminous coal of different ash contents were selected to be heterogeneously ground. Quantitation of components in products was realized using the relation between sulfur content of the mixture and mass yield of one component in the mixture. Product fineness t10 of the component was determined, and split energy was calculated on the premise of specific energy balance and energy-size reduction model by a genetic algorithm. Experimental results indicate that breakage rate and product fineness t10 of the mixture decrease with the increase of hard anthracite content in the mixture. Unlike the single breakage, t10 of anthracite in heterogeneous grinding is improved dramatically, and bituminous coal shows the opposite trend. The interaction between components results in the decrease of the specific energy of the mixture if compared with the mass average one of components in single breakage. Breakage resistance of hard anthracite decreases due to the addition of soft bituminous coal, and grinding energy efficiency of anthracite is also improved compared with that of single grinding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comminution in the Minerals Industry)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Quantitative Microstructural Analysis and X-ray Computed Tomography of Ores and Rocks—Comparison of Results
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020129 - 31 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Profound knowledge of the structure and texture of rocks and ores as well as the behavior of the materials under external loads is essential to further improvements in size reduction processes, particularly in terms of liberation size. New analytical methods such as computer [...] Read more.
Profound knowledge of the structure and texture of rocks and ores as well as the behavior of the materials under external loads is essential to further improvements in size reduction processes, particularly in terms of liberation size. New analytical methods such as computer tomography (CT) were adopted to improve the understanding of material characteristics in rocks and ores relevant to mineral processing, particular the crushing and grinding and the modelling/simulation thereof. Results obtained on the texture and structure of identical samples of rather different rocks and ores (copper ore, granodiorite, kimberlite) are compared by CT with quantitative results from traditional optical microscopy obtained by quantitative microstructural analysis (QMA). While the two approaches show a good agreement of the results in many areas, the measurements with the two different methods also exhibit remarkable differences in other areas, which are discussed further. In conclusion, both methods have their specific advantages starting from sample preparation to the accuracy of information obtained concerning certain parameters of mode and fabric. While sample preparation is faster with CT and information on special distribution of metal minerals is more reliable, the information on mode, grain size and clustering seem to be more precise with QMA. Based on the results, it can be concluded that both methods are comparable in many areas, but in in the field of spatial distribution, they are merely complementary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comminution in the Minerals Industry)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Ball Size on the Grinding Behavior of Talc Using a High-Energy Ball Mill
Minerals 2019, 9(11), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9110668 - 31 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The properties and preparation of talc have long been investigated due to its diverse industrial applications, which have expanded recently. However, its comminution behavior is not yet fully understood. Therefore, having better control of the particle size and properties of talc during manufacturing [...] Read more.
The properties and preparation of talc have long been investigated due to its diverse industrial applications, which have expanded recently. However, its comminution behavior is not yet fully understood. Therefore, having better control of the particle size and properties of talc during manufacturing is required. In this study, we investigate the effect of the ball size in a high-energy ball mill on the comminution rate and particle size reduction. High-energy ball milling at 2000 rpm produces ultrafine talc particles with a surface area of 419.1 m2/g and an estimated spherical diameter of 5.1 nm. Increasing the ball size from 0.1 mm to 2 mm increases the comminution rate and produces smaller talc particles. The delamination of (00l) layers is the main comminution behavior when using 1 mm and 2 mm balls, but both the delamination and rupture of (00l) layers occurs when using 0.1 mm balls. The aggregation behavior of ground talc is also affected by the ball size. Larger aggregations form in aqueous solution when ground with 0.1 mm balls than with 1 mm or 2 mm balls, which highlights the different hydro-phobicities of ground talc. The results indicate that optimizing the ball size facilitates the formation of talc particles of a suitable size, crystallinity, and aggregation properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comminution in the Minerals Industry)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Methods of Ore Pretreatment for Comminution Energy Reduction
Minerals 2020, 10(5), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10050423 - 09 May 2020
Abstract
The comminution of ores consumes a high portion of energy. Therefore, different pretreatment methods of ores prior to their comminution are considered to reduce this energy. However, the results of pretreatment methods and their technological development are scattered in literature. Hence, this paper [...] Read more.
The comminution of ores consumes a high portion of energy. Therefore, different pretreatment methods of ores prior to their comminution are considered to reduce this energy. However, the results of pretreatment methods and their technological development are scattered in literature. Hence, this paper aims at collating the different ore pretreatment methods with their applications and results from published articles, conference proceedings, and verified reports. It was found that pretreatment methods include thermal (via oven, microwave, or radiofrequency), chemical additive, electric, magnetic, ultrasonic, and bio-milling. Results showed that the chemical pretreatment method has been used at an industrial scale since 1930, mainly in cement production. The microwave pretreatment results showed positive improvements at pilot scale mining applications in 2017. The results of ore pretreatment using electric and ultrasonic methods showed up to 24% and 66% improvement in energy consumption, respectively. The former and the latter have been piloted for gold and carbonate ore, respectively. Findings also showed that magnetic, radiofrequency, and bio-milling methods have not led to significant reductions in comminution energy. Based on energy reduction, safety, costs, stage of application, and downstream benefits, microwave and electrical pretreatment methods may be focused for applications in the mining industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comminution in the Minerals Industry)
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