Special Issue "Advanced Techniques and Efficiency Assessment of Mechanical Processing"

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (17 September 2021) | Viewed by 7974

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Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Daniel Saramak
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Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Resource Management, AGH University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30 Av., 30-059 Cracow, Poland
Interests: mechanical enrichment; high-pressure comminution; mathematical modeling; optimization of selected operations in mineral processing; effectiveness of beneficiation processes; aggregate processing; economic of mineral processing; environmental footprints of mineral processing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Marek Pawełczyk
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Silesian University of Technology, Department of Measurements and Control Systems, Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
Interests: noise and vibration control; structural control; signal processing; optimization; modeling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Tomasz Niedoba
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Resource Management, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
Interests: science and technology; earth and planetary sciences engineering materials science environmental science chemical engineering energy chemistry physics and astronomy computer science multidisciplinary; application modeling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We all know that mechanical processing is an important part of ore processing and the production value chain and plays a significant role in mineral aggregate production. The proper selection of technological circuits for individual raw material also results in achieving more favorable effects in downstream beneficiation processes, and it can save energy and decrease the environmental footprint of the processing industry in terms of lower levels of dust, noise, heat, and vibrations. Even though the idea of mechanical processing is simple and includes a reduction of the feed material size, providing a suitable shape of product and liberation of useful mineral from the gangue, many investigations over applications of modern technology and processing circuit layout can be observed. This Special Issue of Minerals is considered to cover up-to-date solutions within mechanical processing of raw materials. Therefore, the Editors especially welcome papers contributing:

  • New technologies and devices application into comminution and classification circuits;
  • Original approaches aiming at improvement of crushing products quality and recovery;
  • Reduction of useful mineral lost during mechanical processing;
  • Innovative methods of broken aggregate production;
  • Decrease of the negative impact of mechanical processing operations on the environment and society, especially in terms of dust and noise emissions;
  • Modeling and assessment of comminution/screening results.

Dr. Daniel Saramak
Prof. Marek Pawelczyk
Dr. Tomasz Niedoba
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Minerals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • raw materials enrichment
  • comminution
  • screening
  • aggregate production
  • environmental aspects of mineral processing

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Published Papers (9 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Special Issue “Advanced Techniques and Efficiency Assessment of Mechanical Processing”—Editorial Note and Critical Review of the Problems
Minerals 2021, 11(12), 1428; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11121428 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 615
Abstract
The value chain of metal production consists of a number of processing steps that result in obtaining the final metal product from the given raw material [...] Full article
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Research

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Article
Application of Wavelet Filtering to Vibrational Signals from the Mining Screen for Spring Condition Monitoring
Minerals 2021, 11(10), 1076; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11101076 - 30 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 442
Abstract
The main task of mineral processing plants is to further process the raw material extracted in the mining faces into a concentrate with the highest possible concentration of the final product. In practice, it is a complex process in which several stages can [...] Read more.
The main task of mineral processing plants is to further process the raw material extracted in the mining faces into a concentrate with the highest possible concentration of the final product. In practice, it is a complex process in which several stages can be distinguished. After the ore has been transported to the surface by the skip shaft, one of the first steps is sieving the ore, which is typically performed using vibrating mining screens. In a typical Ore Enrichment Plant, the screening process is carried out by several such machines. This is a typical bottleneck in the technological chain. For this reason, the main challenge for users is to achieve the highest reliability and efficiency of these technical facilities. The solution is to focus on predictive maintenance strategies based on the development of monitoring and advanced diagnostic procedures capable of estimating the time of safe operation. This work was developed as part of an advanced diagnostic system ensuring comprehensive technical conditioning and early fault detection of components such as the engine, transmission, bearings, springs, and screen. This article focuses on vibration data. The problem of damage detection in the presence of periodically impulsive components resulting from falling feed material on the screen and its further screening process has been considered. These disturbances are of a non-Gaussian noise nature, the elimination of which is essential to extract the fault-related signal of interest. One solution may be to properly smooth and filter the raw signal. In this article, a wavelet filtering technique is applied. First, the wavelet filtering procedure is described. In the next step, the performance of a wavelet filter is investigated depending on its parameters. Then, the results of wavelet filtering are compared with such methods as low-pass filtering and smoothing using a moving average. Finally, the impact of wavelet filtering on the calculation of screen trajectories is investigated. Full article
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Article
Assessment of Selected Characteristics of Enrichment Products for Regular and Irregular Aggregates Beneficiation in Pulsating Jig
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11070777 - 17 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 774
Abstract
Article concerns problem of jig beneficiation of mineral aggregates and focuses especially on problem of separation of hard-enrichable materials. Investigative programme covered tests in laboratory and semi-plant scale and material with different content of regular and irregular particles, along with various particle size [...] Read more.
Article concerns problem of jig beneficiation of mineral aggregates and focuses especially on problem of separation of hard-enrichable materials. Investigative programme covered tests in laboratory and semi-plant scale and material with different content of regular and irregular particles, along with various particle size fractions, was under analysis. Two patented solutions were utilized as methodological approach and densities and absorbabilities of individual products were determined and major novelty of approach consist in separate beneficiation of regular and irregular particles. Results of laboratory investigations showed that more favorable separation effectiveness was observed for the narrow particle size fractions of feed material. In terms of absorbability difference between separation products from I and IV layer was 0.4–0.5% higher for regular particles, and up to 0.5% higher for irregular grains. Differences in densities of respective products were 0.1% higher for regular particles. Results of semi-plant tests confirmed the outcomes achieved in laboratory scale. The qualitative characteristics of separation products in terms of micro-Deval and LA comminution resistance indices were one category higher for regular particles, and two categories higher for irregular grains, comparing to the raw material. Full article
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Article
A Numerical Study of Separation Performance of Vibrating Flip-Flow Screens for Cohesive Particles
Minerals 2021, 11(6), 631; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11060631 - 14 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 696
Abstract
Vibrating flip-flow screens (VFFS) are widely used to separate high-viscosity and fine materials. The most remarkable characteristic is that the vibration intensity of the screen frame is only 2–3 g (g represents the gravitational acceleration), while the vibration intensity of the screen surface [...] Read more.
Vibrating flip-flow screens (VFFS) are widely used to separate high-viscosity and fine materials. The most remarkable characteristic is that the vibration intensity of the screen frame is only 2–3 g (g represents the gravitational acceleration), while the vibration intensity of the screen surface can reach 30–50 g. This effectively solves the problem of the blocking screen aperture in the screening process of moist particles. In this paper, the approximate state of motion of the sieve mat is realized by setting the discrete rigid motion at multiple points on the elastic sieve mat of the VFFS. The effects of surface energy levels between particles separated via screening performance were compared and analyzed. The results show that the flow characteristics of particles have a great influence on the separation performance. For 8 mm particle screening, the particle’s velocity dominates its movement and screening behavior in the range of 0–8 J/m2 surface energy. In the feeding end region (Sections 1 and 2), with the increase in the surface energy, the particle’s velocity decreases, and the contact time between the particles and the screen surface increases, and so the passage increases. When the surface energy level continues to increase, the particles agglomerate together due to the effect of the cohesive force, and the effect of the particle’s agglomeration is greater than the particle velocity. Due to the agglomeration of particles, the difficulty of particles passing through the screen increases, and the yields of various size fractions in the feeding end decrease to some extent. In the transporting process, the agglomerated particles need to travel a certain distance before depolymerization, and the stronger the adhesive force between particles, the larger the depolymerization distance. Therefore, for the case of higher surface energy, the screening percentage near the discharging end (Sections 3 and 4) is greater. The above research is helpful to better understand and optimize the screening process of VFFS. Full article
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Article
Assessment of Sortability Using a Dual-Energy X-ray Transmission System for Studied Sulphide Ore
Minerals 2021, 11(5), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11050490 - 04 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 821
Abstract
In hard rock mining, sensor-based sorting can be applied as a pre-concentration method before the material enters the mill. X-ray transmission sensors have been explored in mining since 1972. Sorting ore of acceptable grade and waste material before processing at the mill can [...] Read more.
In hard rock mining, sensor-based sorting can be applied as a pre-concentration method before the material enters the mill. X-ray transmission sensors have been explored in mining since 1972. Sorting ore of acceptable grade and waste material before processing at the mill can reduce the amount of tailings per unit of valuable metal in the mining operation and have many economic benefits. Ore samples used in this paper are from a polymetallic carbonate replacement deposit (gold-silver-lead-zinc sulphide) in Southeast Europe. This paper focuses on how the Dual-Energy X-ray Transmission (DE-XRT) data is generated and used for ore characterization and sortability for this sulphide ore. The method used in the DE-XRT analysis in this project is based on the dual-material decomposition method, which is used in the medical industry for radiology. This technique can distinguish sulphides from non-sulphides. However, the correlation developed between the DE-XRT response and the metal content is lacking. As a result, the DE-XRT response can only classify the material effectively but cannot reliably predict the metal content. Full article
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Article
Multidimensional Optimization of the Copper Flotation in a Jameson Cell by Means of Taxonomic Methods
Minerals 2021, 11(4), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11040385 - 03 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1039
Abstract
Three factors were measured in the flotation process of copper ore: the copper grade in a concentrate (β), the copper grade in tailings (ϑ), and the recovery of copper in a concentrate (ε). The experiment was conducted by means of a Jameson cell. [...] Read more.
Three factors were measured in the flotation process of copper ore: the copper grade in a concentrate (β), the copper grade in tailings (ϑ), and the recovery of copper in a concentrate (ε). The experiment was conducted by means of a Jameson cell. The factors influencing the quality of the process were the particle size (d), the flotation time (t), the type of collector (k), and the dosage of the collector (s). The considered vector function is then (β(d, t, k, s), ϑ(d, t, k, s), ε(d, t, k, s)). In this work, the optimization was based on determining the values of the adjustable factors (d, t, k, s). The goal was to obtain the possibly highest values of the functions β and ε (maximum) with the possibly lowest values of the function ϑ (minimum). To this end, taxonomic methods were applied. Thanks to the applied method, the optimum—with the adopted assumptions—was found. The presented methodology can be successfully applied in the search for the optima in a variety of technological processes. Full article
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Article
Kinetic Energy Calculation in Granite Particles Comminution Considering Movement Characteristics and Spatial Distribution
Minerals 2021, 11(2), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11020217 - 20 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 796
Abstract
Profound knowledge of the movement characteristics and spatial distribution of the particles under compression during the crushing of rocks and ores is essential to further understanding kinetic energy release law. Various experimental methods such as high-speed camera technology, the coordinate method, and the [...] Read more.
Profound knowledge of the movement characteristics and spatial distribution of the particles under compression during the crushing of rocks and ores is essential to further understanding kinetic energy release law. Various experimental methods such as high-speed camera technology, the coordinate method, and the color tracking method were adopted to improve the understanding of particles’ movement characteristics and spatial distribution in rock comminution. The average horizontal velocities of the four size particles α, β, γ, and δ are statistically calculated. The descending order of the particles’ average velocity is γ, β, α, and δ. In comparison, the descending order of the particles’ kinetic energy is α, β, γ, and δ. Moreover, the contribution of α particles to the total kinetic energy exceeds 70%. The spatial distribution characteristics of coarse and fine particles show different results. The probability of fine particles appearing in the range closer to the center area is greater, while the position of large particles appears to be more random. The color tracking results show that super-large particles generated by crushing are on the specimen’s surface, while small particles are generally produced from inside. The above results indicate a connection between the particle generation mechanism, movement characteristics, and spatial distribution in the comminution process. Full article
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Article
A New Belt Ore Image Segmentation Method Based on the Convolutional Neural Network and the Image-Processing Technology
Minerals 2020, 10(12), 1115; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10121115 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1191
Abstract
In the field of mineral processing, an accurate image segmentation method is crucial for measuring the size distribution of run-of-mine ore on the conveyor belts in real time0The image-based measurement is considered to be real time, on-line, inexpensive, and non-intrusive. In this paper, [...] Read more.
In the field of mineral processing, an accurate image segmentation method is crucial for measuring the size distribution of run-of-mine ore on the conveyor belts in real time0The image-based measurement is considered to be real time, on-line, inexpensive, and non-intrusive. In this paper, a new belt ore image segmentation method was proposed based on a convolutional neural network and image processing technology. It consisted of a classification model and two segmentation algorithms. A total of 2880 images were collected as an original dataset from the process control system (PCS). The test images were processed using the proposed method, the PCS system, the coarse image segmentation (CIS) algorithm, and the fine image segmentation (FIS) algorithm, respectively. The segmentation results of each algorithm were compared with those of the manual segmentation. All empty belt images in the test images were accurately identified by our method. The maximum error between the segmentation results of our method and the results of manual segmentation is 5.61%. The proposed method can accurately identify the empty belt images and segment the coarse material images and mixed material images with high accuracy. Notably, it can be used as a brand new algorithm for belt ore image processing. Full article
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Review

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Review
Challenges in Raw Material Treatment at the Mechanical Processing Stage
Minerals 2021, 11(9), 940; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11090940 - 29 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 631
Abstract
This paper concerns problems related to the mechanical processing of mineral raw materials. The aspects explored were limited to the analysis of comminution technologies in terms of their effectiveness and energy consumption, modeling and simulation approaches, the assessment of crushing results, and environmental [...] Read more.
This paper concerns problems related to the mechanical processing of mineral raw materials. The aspects explored were limited to the analysis of comminution technologies in terms of their effectiveness and energy consumption, modeling and simulation approaches, the assessment of crushing results, and environmental aspects. This article includes investigation of new technologies of comminution, comparing HPGR, high-voltage pulses, and electromagnetic mills. In the area of modeling and optimization, special attention was paid to the approximation of the particle size distribution of crushing products by means of Weibull, log-normal, and logistic functions. Crushing products with an increased content of fines were well characterized by Weibull’s distribution, while log-normal function adequately described HPGR products with a relatively low content of fines. Full article
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