Special Issue "Lattice-Preferred Orientation and Microstructures of Minerals and Their Implications for Seismic Anisotropy"

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Crystallography and Physical Chemistry of Minerals & Nanominerals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 January 2021).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Haemyeong Jung
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Tectonophysics Laboratory, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
Interests: lattice-preferred orientation; olivine; serpentine; amphibole; deformation fabrics; seismic anisotropy; high-pressure experiments; rock deformation; microstructures; earthquake-triggering mechanisms
Dr. Munjae Park
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
Interests: lattice-preferred orientation; fluid inclusion; mineral textures; geochemistry; geochronology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Lattice-preferred orientations (LPOs) of minerals develop in the crust and mantle when rocks are deformed under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. The LPOs of minerals are important for interpreting seismic anisotropy, which is observed worldwide in the crust and mantle, and to understand the internal structure of the deep interior of Earth. There have been major advances in measuring the LPOs of minerals during the past few decades using FE-SEM–EBSD systems. Characterization of microstructures, including LPO, grain size, grain shape, and misorientation has become an important tool in unravelling deformation conditions, deformation histories, kinematics, and seismic anisotropies in the crust and mantle. We welcome papers that describe LPOs and deformation microstructures of minerals and rocks in the crust and mantle, and that give fresh insight into how LPO and microstructures develop and evolve through time, reflect deformation conditions, and influence large-scale geodynamic processes. We encourage contributions from field observations, laboratory experiments, and numerical modeling on geologic materials over a wide range of conditions, length scales, and time scales.

Prof. Dr. Haemyeong Jung
Dr. Munjae Park
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • lattice-preferred orientation
  • deformation microstructures
  • seismic anisotropy
  • SEM–EBSD
  • fabrics
  • rock deformation
  • crust and mantle
  • high pressure
  • mantle flow
  • geodynamics

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Editorial for Special Issue “Lattice-Preferred Orientation and Microstructures of Minerals and Their Implications for Seismic Anisotropy”
by and
Minerals 2021, 11(11), 1152; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11111152 - 20 Oct 2021
Viewed by 399
Abstract
The lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) of minerals is important for interpreting seismic anisotropy [...] Full article

Research

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Article
Twin Induced Reduction of Seismic Anisotropy in Lawsonite Blueschist
Minerals 2021, 11(4), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11040399 - 10 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 670
Abstract
Lawsonite is an important mineral for understanding seismic anisotropy in subducting oceanic crust due to its large elastic anisotropy and prevalence in cold subduction zones. However, there is insufficient knowledge of how lawsonite twinning affects seismic anisotropy, despite previous studies demonstrating the presence [...] Read more.
Lawsonite is an important mineral for understanding seismic anisotropy in subducting oceanic crust due to its large elastic anisotropy and prevalence in cold subduction zones. However, there is insufficient knowledge of how lawsonite twinning affects seismic anisotropy, despite previous studies demonstrating the presence of twins in lawsonite. This study investigated the effect of lawsonite twinning on the crystal preferred orientation (CPO), CPO strength, and seismic anisotropy using lawsonite blueschists from Alpine Corsica (France) and the Sivrihisar Massif (Turkey). The CPOs of the minerals are measured with an electron backscatter diffraction instrument attached to a scanning electron microscope. The electron backscatter diffraction analyses of lawsonite reveal that the {110} twin in lawsonite is developed, the [001] axes are strongly aligned subnormal to the foliation, and both the [100] and [010] axes are aligned subparallel to the foliation. It is concluded that the existence of twins in lawsonite could induce substantial seismic anisotropy reduction, particularly for the maximum S-wave anisotropy in lawsonite and whole rocks by up to 3.67% and 1.46%, respectively. Lawsonite twinning needs to be considered when determining seismic anisotropy in the subducting oceanic crust in cold subduction zones. Full article
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Article
Lattice-Preferred Orientation and Seismic Anisotropy of Minerals in Retrograded Eclogites from Xitieshan, Northwestern China, and Implications for Seismic Reflectance of Rocks in the Subduction Zone
Minerals 2021, 11(4), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11040380 - 02 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 462
Abstract
Various rock phases, including those in subducting slabs, impact seismic anisotropy in subduction zones. The seismic velocity and anisotropy of rocks are strongly affected by the lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) of minerals; this was measured in retrograded eclogites from Xitieshan, northwest China, to understand [...] Read more.
Various rock phases, including those in subducting slabs, impact seismic anisotropy in subduction zones. The seismic velocity and anisotropy of rocks are strongly affected by the lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) of minerals; this was measured in retrograded eclogites from Xitieshan, northwest China, to understand the seismic velocity, anisotropy, and seismic reflectance of the upper part of the subducting slab. For omphacite, an S-type LPO was observed in three samples. For amphibole, the <001> axes were aligned subparallel to the lineation, and the (010) poles were aligned subnormal to foliation. The LPOs of amphibole and omphacite were similar in most samples. The misorientation angle between amphibole and neighboring omphacite was small, and a lack of intracrystalline deformation features was observed in the amphibole. This indicates that the LPO of amphibole was formed by the topotactic growth of amphibole during retrogression of eclogites. The P-wave anisotropy of amphibole in retrograded eclogites was large (approximately 3.7–7.3%). The seismic properties of retrograded eclogites and amphibole were similar, indicating that the seismic properties of retrograded eclogites are strongly affected by the amphibole LPO. The contact boundary between serpentinized peridotites and retrograded eclogites showed a high reflection coefficient, indicating that a reflected seismic wave can be easily detected at this boundary. Full article
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Article
Deformation Microstructures of Phyllite in Gunsan, Korea, and Implications for Seismic Anisotropy in Continental Crust
Minerals 2021, 11(3), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11030294 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 617
Abstract
Muscovite is a major constituent mineral in the continental crust that exhibits very strong seismic anisotropy. Muscovite alignment in rocks can significantly affect the magnitude and symmetry of seismic anisotropy. In this study, deformation microstructures of muscovite-quartz phyllites from the Geumseongri Formation in [...] Read more.
Muscovite is a major constituent mineral in the continental crust that exhibits very strong seismic anisotropy. Muscovite alignment in rocks can significantly affect the magnitude and symmetry of seismic anisotropy. In this study, deformation microstructures of muscovite-quartz phyllites from the Geumseongri Formation in Gunsan, Korea, were studied to investigate the relationship between muscovite and chlorite fabrics in strongly deformed rocks and the seismic anisotropy observed in the continental crust. The [001] axes of muscovite and chlorite were strongly aligned subnormal to the foliation, while the [100] and [010] axes were aligned subparallel to the foliation. The distribution of quartz c-axes indicates activation of the basal<a>, rhomb<a> and prism<a> slip systems. For albite, most samples showed (001) or (010) poles aligned subnormal to the foliation. The calculated seismic anisotropies based on the lattice preferred orientation and modal compositions were in the range of 9.0–21.7% for the P-wave anisotropy and 9.6–24.2% for the maximum S-wave anisotropy. Our results indicate that the modal composition and alignment of muscovite and chlorite significantly affect the magnitude and symmetry of seismic anisotropy. It was found that the coexistence of muscovite and chlorite contributes to seismic anisotropy constructively when their [001] axes are aligned in the same direction. Full article
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Article
Thermo-Structural Evolution of the Val Malenco (Italy) Peridotite: A Petrological, Geochemical and Microstructural Study
Minerals 2020, 10(11), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10110962 - 28 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 601
Abstract
The Val Malenco peridotite massif is one of the largest exposed ultramafic massifs in Alpine orogen. To better constrain its tectonic history, we have performed a comprehensive petro-structural and geochemical study. Our results show that the Val Malenco serpentinized peridotite recorded both pre-Alpine [...] Read more.
The Val Malenco peridotite massif is one of the largest exposed ultramafic massifs in Alpine orogen. To better constrain its tectonic history, we have performed a comprehensive petro-structural and geochemical study. Our results show that the Val Malenco serpentinized peridotite recorded both pre-Alpine extension and Alpine convergence events. The pre-Alpine extension is recorded by microstructural and geochemical features preserved in clinopyroxene and olivine porphyroblasts, including partial melting and refertilisation, high-temperature (900–1000 °C) deformation and a cooling, and fluid-rock reaction. The following Alpine convergence in a supra-subduction zone setting is documented by subduction-related prograde metamorphism features preserved in the coarse-grained antigorite and olivine grains in the less-strained olivine-rich layers, and later low-temperature (<350 °C) serpentinization in the fine-grained antigorite in the more strained antigorite-rich layers. The strain shadow structure in the more strained antigorite-rich layer composed of dissolving clinopyroxene porphyroblast and the precipitated oriented diopside and olivine suggest dissolution and precipitation creep, while the consistency between the strain shadow structure and alternating less- and more-strained serpentinized domains highlights the increasing role of strain localization induced by the dissolution-precipitation creep with decreasing temperature during exhumation in Alpine convergence events. Full article
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Article
Microstructures and Fabric Transitions of Natural Ice from the Styx Glacier, Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica
Minerals 2020, 10(10), 892; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10100892 - 08 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1265
Abstract
We investigated the microstructures of five ice core samples from the Styx Glacier, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Evidence of dynamic recrystallization was found in all samples: those at 50 m mainly by polygonization, and those at 170 m, largely by grain boundary migration. [...] Read more.
We investigated the microstructures of five ice core samples from the Styx Glacier, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Evidence of dynamic recrystallization was found in all samples: those at 50 m mainly by polygonization, and those at 170 m, largely by grain boundary migration. Crystallographic preferred orientations of all analyzed samples (view from the surface) typically showed a single cluster of c-axes normal to the surface. A girdle intersecting the single cluster occurs at 140–170 m with a tight cluster of a-axes normal to the girdle. We interpret the change of crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) at <140 m as relating to a combination of vertical compression, and shear on a horizontal plane, and the girdle CPOs at depths >140 m, as the result of horizontal extension. Based on the data obtained from the ground penetrating radar, the underlying bedrock topography of a nunatak could have generated the extensional stress regime in the study area. The results imply changeable stress regimes that may occur during burial as a result of external kinematic controls, such as an appearance of a small peak in the bedrock. Full article
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Article
Evolution of Deformation Fabrics Related to Petrogenesis of Upper Mantle Xenoliths Beneath the Baekdusan Volcano
Minerals 2020, 10(9), 831; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10090831 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1137
Abstract
Knowledge of the formation and evolution of cratonic subcontinental lithospheric mantle is critical to our understanding of the processes responsible for continental development. Here, we report the deformation microstructures and lattice preferred orientations (LPOs) of olivine and pyroxenes alongside petrological data from spinel [...] Read more.
Knowledge of the formation and evolution of cratonic subcontinental lithospheric mantle is critical to our understanding of the processes responsible for continental development. Here, we report the deformation microstructures and lattice preferred orientations (LPOs) of olivine and pyroxenes alongside petrological data from spinel peridotite xenoliths beneath the Baekdusan volcano. We have used these datasets to constrain the evolution of deformation fabrics related to petrogenesis from the Baekdusan peridotites. Based on petrographic features and deformation microstructures, we have identified two textural categories for these peridotites: coarse- and fine-granular harzburgites (CG and FG Hzb). We found that mineral composition, equilibrium temperature, olivine LPO, stress, and extraction depth vary considerably with the texture. We suggest that the A-type olivine LPO in the CG Hzb may be related to the preexisting Archean cratonic mantle fabric (i.e., old frozen LPO) formed under high-temperature, low-stress, and dry conditions. Conversely, we suggest that the D-type olivine LPOs in the FG Hzb samples likely originated from later localized deformation events under low-temperature, high-stress, and dry conditions after a high degree of partial melting. Moreover, we consider the Baekdusan peridotite xenoliths to have been derived from a compositionally and texturally heterogeneous vertical mantle section beneath the Baekdusan volcano. Full article
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Article
Lattice Preferred Orientation and Deformation Microstructures of Glaucophane and Epidote in Experimentally Deformed Epidote Blueschist at High Pressure
Minerals 2020, 10(9), 803; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10090803 - 11 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 946
Abstract
To understand the lattice preferred orientation (LPO) and deformation microstructures at the top of a subducting slab in a warm subduction zone, deformation experiments of epidote blueschist were conducted in simple shear under high pressure (0.9–1.5 GPa) and temperature (400–500 °C). At low [...] Read more.
To understand the lattice preferred orientation (LPO) and deformation microstructures at the top of a subducting slab in a warm subduction zone, deformation experiments of epidote blueschist were conducted in simple shear under high pressure (0.9–1.5 GPa) and temperature (400–500 °C). At low shear strain (γ ≤ 1), the [001] axes of glaucophane were in subparallel alignment with the shear direction, and the (010) poles were subnormally aligned with the shear plane. At high shear strain (γ > 2), the [001] axes of glaucophane were in subparallel alignment with the shear direction, and the [100] axes were subnormally aligned with the shear plane. At a shear strain between 2< γ <4, the (010) poles of epidote were in subparallel alignment with the shear direction, and the [100] axes were subnormally aligned with the shear plane. At a shear strain where γ > 4, the alignment of the (010) epidote poles had altered from subparallel to subnormal to the shear plane, while the [001] axes were in subparallel alignment with the shear direction. The experimental results indicate that the magnitude of shear strain and rheological contrast between component minerals plays an important role in the formation of LPOs for glaucophane and epidote. Full article
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Article
Seismic Properties of a Unique Olivine-Rich Eclogite in the Western Gneiss Region, Norway
Minerals 2020, 10(9), 774; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10090774 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 902
Abstract
Investigating the seismic properties of natural eclogite is crucial for identifying the composition, density, and mechanical structure of the Earth’s deep crust and mantle. For this purpose, numerous studies have addressed the seismic properties of various types of eclogite, except for a rare [...] Read more.
Investigating the seismic properties of natural eclogite is crucial for identifying the composition, density, and mechanical structure of the Earth’s deep crust and mantle. For this purpose, numerous studies have addressed the seismic properties of various types of eclogite, except for a rare eclogite type that contains abundant olivine and orthopyroxene. In this contribution, we calculated the ambient-condition seismic velocities and seismic anisotropies of this eclogite type using an olivine-rich eclogite from northwestern Flemsøya in the Nordøyane ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) domain of the Western Gneiss Region in Norway. Detailed analyses of the seismic properties data suggest that patterns of seismic anisotropy of the Flem eclogite were largely controlled by the strength of the crystal-preferred orientation (CPO) and characterized by significant destructive effects of the CPO interactions, which together, resulted in very weak bulk rock seismic anisotropies (AVp = 1.0–2.5%, max. AVs = 0.6–2.0%). The magnitudes of the seismic anisotropies of the Flem eclogite were similar to those of dry eclogite but much lower than those of gabbro, peridotite, hydrous-phase-bearing eclogite, and blueschist. Furthermore, we found that amphibole CPOs were the main contributors to the higher seismic anisotropies in some amphibole-rich samples. The average seismic velocities of Flem eclogite were greatly affected by the relative volume proportions of omphacite and amphibole. The Vp (8.00–8.33 km/s) and Vs (4.55–4.72 km/s) were remarkably larger than the hydrous-phase-bearing eclogite, blueschist, and gabbro, but lower than dry eclogite and peridotite. The Vp/Vs ratio was almost constant (avg. ≈ 1.765) among Flem eclogite, slightly larger than olivine-free dry eclogite, but similar to peridotite, indicating that an abundance of olivine is the source of their high Vp/Vs ratios. The Vp/Vs ratios of Flem eclogite were also higher than other (non-)retrograded eclogite and significantly lower than those of gabbro. The seismic features derived from the Flem eclogite can thus be used to distinguish olivine-rich eclogite from other common rock types (especially gabbro) in the deep continental crust or subduction channel when high-resolution seismic wave data are available. Full article
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Article
Microstructural Evolution of Amphibole Peridotites in Åheim, Norway, and the Implications for Seismic Anisotropy in the Mantle Wedge
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040345 - 12 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1333
Abstract
The microstructure of amphibole peridotites from Åheim, Norway were analyzed to understand the evolution of the lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) of olivine throughout the Scandian Orogeny and its implication for the seismic anisotropy of the subduction zone. The Åheim peridotites had a porphyroclastic texture [...] Read more.
The microstructure of amphibole peridotites from Åheim, Norway were analyzed to understand the evolution of the lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) of olivine throughout the Scandian Orogeny and its implication for the seismic anisotropy of the subduction zone. The Åheim peridotites had a porphyroclastic texture and some samples contained an abundant amount of hydrous minerals such as tremolite. Detailed microstructural analysis on the Åheim peridotites revealed multiple stages of deformation. The coarse grains showed an A-type LPO of olivine, which can be interpreted as the initial stage of deformation. The spinel-bearing samples showed a mixture of B-type and C-type LPOs of olivine, which is considered to represent the deformation under water-rich conditions. The recrystallized fine-grained olivine displays a B-type LPO, which can be interpreted as the final stage of deformation. Microstructures and water content of olivine indicate that the dominant deformation mechanism of olivine showing a B-type LPO is a dislocation creep under water-rich condition. The observation of the B-type LPO of olivine is important for an interpretation of trench-parallel seismic anisotropy in the mantle wedge. The calculated seismic anisotropy of the tremolite showed that tremolite can contribute to the trench-parallel seismic anisotropy in the mantle wedge. Full article
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