Role of Microbial Metabolites in the Regulation of Host Immunity and Metabolism

A special issue of Metabolites (ISSN 2218-1989). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Metabolomics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2023) | Viewed by 7934

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar, India
Interests: gut microbiome; gut-adipose-brain axis; metabolomics; transcriptomics; metagenomics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Balance among various physiological functions is important to maintain a state of good health. Among the various physiological functions, metabolism and immunity play key roles in regulating energy and protecting us from health threats. For a long time, it was thought that genes are the major players in this process. However, with time we learned that we have resident microbes (overtly bacteria, but also viruses and fungi) that are either equal or greater in number than the host cells. In addition, the metagenome (the genome of the resident microbes) number is at least a couple of logs higher than the host’s. Naturally, it was thought that the resident microbes, and especially the gut (the organ that populates most of the microbes) bacteriome (which is greater in number than other microbes) would play critical roles in maintaining physiological balance or homeostasis to keep the host healthy. In general, these microbes help to digest foods that the host would otherwise find difficult or impossible to digest. These difficult to digest foods are processed by the microbes to produce meta-metabolites or molecules such as short-chain fatty acids, in order to provide immune protection to the host. The microbiome could also regulate energy utilization and the host metabolism. The focus of the current issue is to understand how the meta-metabolites or microbial metabolites regulate host metabolism and immunity. We are open to accepting original research articles, reviews, and mini reviews.

Prof. Dr. Palok Aich
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • metabolites and metabolism
  • microbiome
  • metagenomics
  • pathways and networks
  • immunity

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Review

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15 pages, 1178 KiB  
Review
Microbial and Host Metabolites at the Backstage of Fever: Current Knowledge about the Co-Ordinate Action of Receptors and Molecules Underlying Pathophysiology and Clinical Implications
by Luigi Santacroce, Marica Colella, Ioannis Alexandros Charitos, Marina Di Domenico, Raffaele Palmirotta and Emilio Jirillo
Metabolites 2023, 13(3), 461; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13030461 - 22 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2709
Abstract
Fever represents an elevation of body temperature, that exerts a protective effect against pathogens. Innate immune cells and neurons are implicated in the regulation of body temperature. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns, i.e., lipopolysaccharides from Gram-negative bacteria and peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic acid from Gram-positive bacteria [...] Read more.
Fever represents an elevation of body temperature, that exerts a protective effect against pathogens. Innate immune cells and neurons are implicated in the regulation of body temperature. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns, i.e., lipopolysaccharides from Gram-negative bacteria and peptidoglycan and lipoteichoic acid from Gram-positive bacteria are exogenous pyrogens, that bind to Toll-like receptors on immune and non-immune cells. The subsequent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6 and Tumor necrosis factor-alpha] and their passage through the brain trigger the febrile response. In fact, neurons of the pre-optic area produce prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), that, in turn, bind to the PGE2 receptors; thus, generating fever. Apart from classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, i.e., aspirin and acetaminophen, various botanicals are currently used as antipyretic agents and, therefore, their mechanisms of action will be elucidated. Full article
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16 pages, 1108 KiB  
Review
Hepatic Mitochondria-Gut Microbiota Interactions in Metabolism-Associated Fatty Liver Disease
by Francesco Bellanti, Aurelio Lo Buglio and Gianluigi Vendemiale
Metabolites 2023, 13(3), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13030322 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1748
Abstract
The prevalence of metabolism-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) represents an urgent pandemic, complicated by a higher risk of morbidity and mortality as well as an increased socio-economic burden. There is growing evidence proving the impact of gut microbiota modifications on the development and [...] Read more.
The prevalence of metabolism-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) represents an urgent pandemic, complicated by a higher risk of morbidity and mortality as well as an increased socio-economic burden. There is growing evidence proving the impact of gut microbiota modifications on the development and progression of MAFLD through changes in metabolic pathways, modulation of the immune response, and activation of pro-inflammatory signals. Concurrently, metabolites produced by gut microbiota consisting of short chain fatty acids and bile acids contribute to the regulation of hepatic homeostasis by interacting with mitochondria. Evolving research indicates that innovative therapeutic targets for MAFLD may focus on gut microbiota–mitochondria interplay to regulate hepatic homeostasis. Recent investigations have explored the potential of new treatment strategies, such as prebiotics, probiotics, and metabolites, to change the composition of gut microbiota and simultaneously exert a positive impact on mitochondrial function to improve MAFLD. This review summarizes the significance of mitochondria and reports modifications in the composition of gut microbiota and its metabolites in MAFLD in order to illustrate the fascinating interplay between liver mitochondria and intestinal microbiota, discussing the potential effects of innovative treatments to modulate gut microbiota. Full article
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Other

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16 pages, 1873 KiB  
Systematic Review
A Systematic Review on the Association between Obesity and Mood Disorders and the Role of Gut Microbiota
by Swati Sagarika Panda, Akankshya Nayak, Srishti Shah and Palok Aich
Metabolites 2023, 13(4), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo13040488 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2424
Abstract
Obesity is a complex health condition that increases the susceptibility to developing cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and numerous other metabolic health issues. The effect of obesity is not just limited to the conditions mentioned above; it is also seen to have a profound impact [...] Read more.
Obesity is a complex health condition that increases the susceptibility to developing cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and numerous other metabolic health issues. The effect of obesity is not just limited to the conditions mentioned above; it is also seen to have a profound impact on the patient’s mental state, leading to the onset of various mental disorders, particularly mood disorders. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the mechanism underlying the crosstalk between obesity and mental disorders. The gut microbiota is vital in regulating and maintaining host physiology, including metabolism and neuronal circuits. Because of this newly developed understanding of gut microbiota role, here we evaluated the published diverse information to summarize the achievement in the field. In this review, we gave an overview of the association between obesity, mental disorders, and the role of gut microbiota there. Further new guidelines and experimental tools are necessary to understand the microbial contribution to regulate a balanced healthy life. Full article
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