Special Issue "Topographic Anatomy of the Human Body"

A special issue of Medicina (ISSN 1648-9144).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Michael L. Pretterklieber
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Medical University of Graz, Gottfried Schatz Research Center, Macroscopic and Clinical Anatomy, Harrachgasse 21, 8010 Graz, Austria
Interests: anatomic variation; topographic anatomy; comparative anatomy; cross-sectional anatomy; biomechanical phenomena; functional laterality; human development; larynx; musculoskeletal system

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As topographic anatomy is the royal road for study and research, and has been my topic for forty years of work, it is a great pleasure for me to invite you to contribute to this Special Issue. Moreover, it is still of the utmost value to base our research on perfect anatomic dissection. Thus, I await manuscripts which will fulfill this basic requirement, elucidating the detailed anatomy of any region of the human body, including anatomic variants and variations. As topographic anatomy is often equated with the term surgical anatomy, manuscripts considering the anatomic basis of surgical approaches or imaging techniques are also appreciated. Recalling the words of Joseph Hyrtl, one of the most famous Viennese anatomists, “Anatomy can exist without medicine, but medicine not without anatomy”, anatomists should remain conceited and certainly not reduce their duty to merely assisting clinical medicine. De jure acting as physicians “indirectly on the patients”, it is our experience that is of highest value for minimizing or even avoiding any unnecessary trauma.

Prof. Dr. Michael L. Pretterklieber
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • topographic anatomy
  • anatomic variation
  • surgical anatomy
  • cross-sectional anatomy
  • functional laterality

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Classification and Morphometric Features of Pterion in Thai Population with Potential Sex Prediction
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1282; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57111282 (registering DOI) - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 273
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The landmark for neurosurgical approaches to access brain lesion is the pterion. The aim of the present study is to classify and examine the prevalence of all types of pterion variations and perform morphometric measurements from previously defined anthropological landmarks. [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The landmark for neurosurgical approaches to access brain lesion is the pterion. The aim of the present study is to classify and examine the prevalence of all types of pterion variations and perform morphometric measurements from previously defined anthropological landmarks. Materials and methods: One-hundred and twenty-four Thai dried skulls were investigated. Classification and morphometric measurement of the pterion was performed. Machine learning models were also used to interpret the morphometric findings with respect to sex and age estimation. Results: Spheno-parietal type was the most common type (62.1%), followed by epipteric (11.7%), fronto-temporal (5.2%) and stellate (1.2%). Complete synostosis of the pterion suture was present in 18.5% and was only present in males. While most morphometric measurements were similar between males and females, the distances from the pterion center to the mastoid process and to the external occipital protuberance were longer in males. Random forest algorithm could predict sex with 80.7% accuracy (root mean square error = 0.38) when the pterion morphometric data were provided. Correlational analysis indicated that the distances from the pterion center to the anterior aspect of the frontozygomatic suture and to the zygomatic angle were positively correlated with age, which may serve as basis for age estimation in the future. Conclusions: Further studies are needed to explore the use of machine learning in anatomical studies and morphometry-based sex and age estimation. Thorough understanding of the anatomy of the pterion is clinically useful when planning pterional craniotomy, particularly when the position of the pterion may change with age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Topographic Anatomy of the Human Body)
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Article
Morphological Study of Fossa Ovalis in Formalin-Fixed Human Hearts and Its Clinical Importance
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1254; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57111254 - 16 Nov 2021
Viewed by 240
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Our study aimed to investigate the gross anatomy aspects of the fossa ovalis (FO) and the presence of some anatomical variation resulting from the incomplete fusion of septum primum and septum secundum, such as an atrial septal pouch (SP) and [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Our study aimed to investigate the gross anatomy aspects of the fossa ovalis (FO) and the presence of some anatomical variation resulting from the incomplete fusion of septum primum and septum secundum, such as an atrial septal pouch (SP) and left atrial septal ridge. Materials and Methods: Thirty-one adult human hearts removed from formalin-fixed specimens were examined to provide information about the morphology of the FO. The organs were free of any gross anatomically visible pathological conditions. Results: The most common variants were the FO located in the inferior part of the interatrial septum (64.51%), circular (61.3%), with a net-like structure (51.62%), prominent limbus (93.55%), and patent foramen ovale (PFO) (25.8%). The right SP was observed in 9.67% of specimens, the left SP was observed in 29.03% of cases, and in 51.61% of cases, a double SP was observed. One sample presented a right SP and a double left SP, and one case showed a triple left SP, which was not reported previously to our knowledge. Conclusions: Knowledge of the interatrial septal anatomy becomes important for interventional cardiologists and should be documented before transeptal puncture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Topographic Anatomy of the Human Body)
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Article
A Rare Case of Facial Artery Branching—A Review of the Literature and a Case Report with Clinical Implications
Medicina 2021, 57(11), 1172; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57111172 - 28 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: Vascular variations appear as morphologically distinct patterns of blood diverging from the most commonly observed vessel patterns. The facial artery is considered to be the main vessel for supplying blood to the anterior part of the face. An anatomical understanding [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Vascular variations appear as morphologically distinct patterns of blood diverging from the most commonly observed vessel patterns. The facial artery is considered to be the main vessel for supplying blood to the anterior part of the face. An anatomical understanding of the facial artery, its course, its topography, and its branches is important in medical and dental practice (especially in neck and face surgery), and is also essential for radiologists to be able to interpret vascular imaging in the face following angiography of the region. A profound knowledge of the arteries in the region will aid in minimizing the risks to the patient. Materials and Methods: In our publication a narrative literature review and a case report are presented. Results: A rare case of a facial artery pattern has been described anatomically for the first time with respect to its course and branching. This variation was found on the left side of a 60-year-old male corpse during anatomical dissection. The anterior branch of the facial artery arched in the direction of the labial angle, and there divided into the inferior and superior labial arteries. At the same time, the posterior branch coursed vertically and superficially to the masseter muscle. It here gave off the premasseteric branch, and continued towards the nose, where it ran below the levator labii superioris and the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscles and terminated at the dorsum nasi. Conclusions: Our review of the literature and the case report add to knowledge on the facial artery with respect to its topographical anatomy and its branching and termination patterns, as well as the areas of supply. An exact knowledge of individual facial artery anatomy may play an important role in the planning of flaps or tumor excisions due to the differing vascularization and can also help to prevent artery injuries during aesthetic procedures such as filler and botulinum toxin injections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Topographic Anatomy of the Human Body)
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Article
Launay’s External Carotid Vein
Medicina 2021, 57(9), 985; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57090985 - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 405
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Launay’s external carotid vein (ECV) is poorly represented in the anatomical literature, although it is an occasional satellite of the external carotid artery (ECA). We aimed to establish the incidence and morphology of the ECV. Materials and Methods: [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Launay’s external carotid vein (ECV) is poorly represented in the anatomical literature, although it is an occasional satellite of the external carotid artery (ECA). We aimed to establish the incidence and morphology of the ECV. Materials and Methods: One hundred computed tomography angiograms were investigated, and ECVs were documented anatomically, when found. Results: Launay’s vein was found in 3/200 sides (1.5%) in a male and two female cases. In two of these cases, the ECV was a replaced variant of the anterior division of the retromandibular vein (RMV), and the facial vein (FV) ended in the external jugular vein. In the third case with the ECV, the RMV was absent and the common FV that resulted from that ECV and the FV drained into the internal jugular vein. The ECV could also appear as an accessory RMV, not just as a replaced one. Additional variants were found, such as fenestration of the external jugular vein (EJV), the extracondylar vein draining the deep temporal veins and an arterial occipitoauricular trunk. Conclusions: Surgical dissections of the ECA in the retromandibular space should carefully observe an ECV to avoid unwanted haemorrhagic events. Approaches of the neck of the mandible should also carefully distinguish the consistent extracondylar veins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Topographic Anatomy of the Human Body)
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Article
Morphometry of the Entire Internal Carotid Artery on CT Angiography
Medicina 2021, 57(8), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57080832 - 17 Aug 2021
Viewed by 596
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Knowledge of the internal carotid artery’s (ICA) morphometric features is influential in outlining surgical and minimally invasive procedures in the neurovascular field. Many studies have shown divisive numbers regarding the ICA’s caliber, with the measuring point of the artery [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Knowledge of the internal carotid artery’s (ICA) morphometric features is influential in outlining surgical and minimally invasive procedures in the neurovascular field. Many studies have shown divisive numbers regarding the ICA’s caliber, with the measuring point of the artery sometimes differing. This study presents ICA dimensions based on computed tomography angiography in each of its seven segments as per Bouthillier’s classification, correlating vascular dimensions with anthropometric parameters. Materials and Methods: A thorough CT angiography analysis was performed on 70 patients with internal carotid vessels unaffected by atherosclerotic disease. The extracranial part of the ICA was measured in four locations—carotid bulb, post-bulbar dilation, at its cervical midpoint, and below its entrance into the carotid foramen. Single landmarks were used for measurements in the intracranial segments. ICA length was assessed in the neck region and also in the cranial cavity. Craniometric measurements were performed on sagittal and coronal CT reconstructions. Patient height was taken into consideration. Results: The largest ICA portion is near its origin in the carotid sinus area (7.59 ± 1.00 mm), with a steep decline in caliber following its extracranial course. Distal ICA presented values somewhat similar to its proximal intracranial segment diameters (4.67 ± 0.47 mm). Dimensions of the ICA in the intracranial segments start from a value of 4.53 ± 0.47 mm and decrease by approximately 40% when reaching the origin of the middle cerebral artery (2.71 ± 0.37 mm), showing a marked decrease in caliber after the emergence of the most critical collateral artery, the ophthalmic branch. The length of the ICA varies between genders, with the male ICA being about 10 mm longer in total length than female ICA; this difference is also correlated with patient height and skull dimensions. Conclusions: Both intra- and extracranial ICA have variable dimensions and length related to gender and anthropometric parameters, with no significant differences obtained concerning side or age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Topographic Anatomy of the Human Body)
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Case Report
Variant Arterial Supply of the Descending Colon by the Coeliac Trunk: A Case Report
Medicina 2021, 57(5), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina57050487 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 562
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Knowledge of arterial variations of the intestines is of great importance in visceral surgery and interventional radiology. Materials and Methods: An unusual variation in the blood supply of the descending colon was observed in a Caucasian female body [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Knowledge of arterial variations of the intestines is of great importance in visceral surgery and interventional radiology. Materials and Methods: An unusual variation in the blood supply of the descending colon was observed in a Caucasian female body donor. Results: In this case, the left colic artery that regularly derives from the inferior mesenteric artery supplying the descending colon was instead a branch of the common hepatic artery. Conclusions: Here, we describe the very rare case of an aberrant left colic artery arising from the common hepatic artery in a dissection study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Topographic Anatomy of the Human Body)
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