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Special Issue "Advances in Mechanical Testing of Engineering Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Mechanics of Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 July 2022) | Viewed by 9011

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Stanisław Radkowski
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Automotive and Construction Machinery Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
Interests: non-destructive testing; structural health monitoring; uniform and composite materials; smart materials; modeling and simulations; diagnostics; damage detection
Dr. Szymon Gontarz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Professor at the Faculty of Automotive and Construction Machinery Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 1, 00-661 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: magnetic methods in non-destructive testing; structural health monitoring; uniform and composite materials; smart materials; diagnostics; damage detection

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Currently, both the industry and the scientific community participate to a greater or lesser extent in the fourth industrial revolution codenamed Industry 4.0. The implemented idea is based on broadly understood information and its use in cyber–physical systems. Data is processed with the help of artificial intelligence and using various algorithms belonging to the 'big data mining' techniques. However, such systems would not exist without mechanical objects and information about their functioning. These objects take on more and more advanced forms, so in such a situation it becomes necessary to obtain reliable information about the material, and, in particular, its current state. The introduction of new diagnostic-oriented information on materials and technological processes to new systems seems to be an indispensable step that will keep pace with the emerging modern technical facilities.

Taking up the proposed topics, the scientific community considers two issues:

  • New diagnostic methods adapted to new materials, including intelligent materials;
  • Obtaining new information about conventional materials used in innovative technical solutions.

The solutions to the above are seen in the use of modern sensory systems enabling and seeking information in new physical relationships, i.e., analyzing cross effects. Therefore, the thematic scope of the Special Issue includes examples of the following specific topics:

  • Advanced signal processing for nondestructive testing.
  • Damage detection and damage evaluation.
  • Modeling and numerical analyses for supporting SHM systems.
  • Passive and active magnetic methods.
  • Guided waves, ground-penetrating radar, acoustic emission, and thermography.
  • Feature extraction.
  • Information decomposition.
  • Complex diagnostic systems.
  • Integration of known non-destructive testing methods.

Developed techniques are designed to provide information about the work of technical objects, to control processes taking place in them, to detect early phases of the fatigue process or surface and shape defects or dangerous stress states, such as plasticizing.

Only the development of diagnostic methods will keep pace with the ideas and implementations of the 4th technological revolution. By accessing new information on materials and their condition, it will be possible to maintain the safety and reliability of mechanical engineering facilities at the appropriate level. In addition, such information, processed in the spirit of the latest algorithms, will allow the development of a proactive strategy for the operation of these facilities. This approach, taking into account these aspects, will allow for the harmonious development of new technologies for Industry 4.0. This Special Issue will be a necessary supplement and exchange of experience and achievements in acquiring new information on both classic and modern materials used in recent mechanical engineering.

Prof. Stanisław Radkowski
Dr. Szymon Gontarz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Non-destructive testing
  • Structural health monitoring
  • Uniform and composite materials
  • Smart materials
  • Modeling and simulations
  • Diagnostics
  • Damage detection

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Article
The Correlation between Shrinkage and Acoustic Emission Signals in Early Age Concrete
Materials 2022, 15(15), 5389; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15155389 - 05 Aug 2022
Viewed by 202
Abstract
This study analysed the processes of damage formation and development in early age unloaded concrete using the acoustic emission method (IADP). These are of great importance in the context of the durability and reliability of a structure, as they contribute to reducing its [...] Read more.
This study analysed the processes of damage formation and development in early age unloaded concrete using the acoustic emission method (IADP). These are of great importance in the context of the durability and reliability of a structure, as they contribute to reducing its failure-free operation time. Concrete made with basalt aggregate and Portland or metallurgical cement cured under different conditions after demoulding was the test material. The obtained damage values were compared with the measured concrete shrinkage, and a shrinkage strain–acoustic emission signal (resulting from damage) correlation was found. The correlation allows easy measurement of damage level in the early period of concrete hardening, and consequently can be the basis of a non-destructive method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mechanical Testing of Engineering Materials)
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Article
Assessment of Internal Damage in Sandwich Structures by Post-Processing of Mode Shapes Using Curvelet Transform
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4517; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164517 - 11 Aug 2021
Viewed by 715
Abstract
Identification and quantification of structural damage is one of the crucial aspects of proper maintenance of mechanical and civil structures, which is directly related to their integrity and safety. The paper presents a novel approach for detecting various types of damage in sandwich [...] Read more.
Identification and quantification of structural damage is one of the crucial aspects of proper maintenance of mechanical and civil structures, which is directly related to their integrity and safety. The paper presents a novel approach for detecting various types of damage in sandwich structures by processing the mode shapes using a hybrid algorithm based on the curvelet transform and the standardized damage index concept. The proposed approach uses the properties of directional selectivity, absence of the boundary effect, typical of such a class of transforms, and excellent filtration capabilities of the curvelet transform as well as the classification hypothesis in the standardized damage index, which allows the exclusion of irrelevant information and emphasizes proper damage location and shape. The proposed hybrid algorithm allowed to successfully identify a subsurface core damage in sandwich structures, such as local lack of a core or its debonding from facings. The performed quantification study aimed to evaluate the correctness of identified damage shape confirmed the validity and accuracy of the proposed algorithm not only for the damage detection and localization but also for the estimation of the size of structural damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mechanical Testing of Engineering Materials)
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Article
Extraction of Magnetic Field Features to Determine the Degree of Material Strain
Materials 2021, 14(6), 1576; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14061576 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 814
Abstract
Currently, to realize the reliable operation and proper exploitation of complex machines and structures, information regarding the material condition must be obtained. This information should ideally be acquired in a noninvasive manner. In addition, contemporary rapid technological development is conducive to the research [...] Read more.
Currently, to realize the reliable operation and proper exploitation of complex machines and structures, information regarding the material condition must be obtained. This information should ideally be acquired in a noninvasive manner. In addition, contemporary rapid technological development is conducive to the research and advancement of new methods, including magnetic methods. This publication describes the methods that can enable the extraction of information from the magnetic field, which is valuable for determining the material effort state and performing technical diagnostics. The issue of using the magnetic field to assess the technical condition of structures is a promising trend in technical diagnostics. Moreover, new ways to process the magnetic field information are being identified to connect the observed surface changes in the magnetic field with the significant diagnostic symptoms. This work provides an extensive introduction to the theoretical basis and diagnostic techniques based on measurements of the magnetic field obtained in close proximity to the structure of interest. The key limitations of the method and associated possibilities are highlighted. The model considerations were taken into account to provide a mathematical description of the extraction process and possible interpretations of the acquired signals. According to the received guidelines, the plan and implementation of two experiments are described along with the obtained results, which demonstrated the possibility of identifying valuable information that can be used to determine the state of the material stress and perform diagnostics of steel structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mechanical Testing of Engineering Materials)
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Article
Application of Teager–Kaiser’s Instantaneous Frequency for Detection of Delamination in FRP Composite Materials
Materials 2021, 14(5), 1154; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14051154 - 01 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 708
Abstract
Composite materials are widely used in many engineering applications and fields of technology. One of the main defects, which occur in fiber-reinforced composite materials, is delamination. It manifests itself in the separation of layers of material and the damaged structure once subjected to [...] Read more.
Composite materials are widely used in many engineering applications and fields of technology. One of the main defects, which occur in fiber-reinforced composite materials, is delamination. It manifests itself in the separation of layers of material and the damaged structure once subjected to mechanical loads degrades further. Delamination results in lower stiffness and the decrease of structure’s carry load capability. Its early detection is one of the tasks of non-invasive structural health monitoring of layered composite materials. This publication discusses a new method for delamination detection in fiber-reinforced composite materials. The approach is based on analysis of energy signal, calculated with Teager–Kaiser energy operator, and comparison of change of the weighted instantaneous frequency for measurement points located in- and outside of delamination area. First, applicability of the developed method was tested using simple models of vibration signals, reflecting considered phenomena. Next, the authors’ weighted instantaneous frequency was applied for detection of deamination using signals obtained from FEM simulated response of the cantilever beam. Finally, the methods effectiveness were tested involving real experimental signals collected by the laser Doppler vibrometer (LVD) sensor measuring vibrations of the delaminated glass-epoxy specimens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mechanical Testing of Engineering Materials)
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Article
Single-Sensor Vibration-Scanning Method for Assessing the Mechanical Properties of 3D Printed Elements
Materials 2021, 14(5), 1072; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14051072 - 25 Feb 2021
Viewed by 689
Abstract
This paper considers issues related to the assessment of the mechanical properties of elements made with 3D printing technology. To enable experimental testing, an automated test stand was built to perform amplitude and phase angle measurements of any point of the specimen. A [...] Read more.
This paper considers issues related to the assessment of the mechanical properties of elements made with 3D printing technology. To enable experimental testing, an automated test stand was built to perform amplitude and phase angle measurements of any point of the specimen. A contactless, optical measurement method was selected, as it is especially adequate when it comes to elements with small dimensions and masses. One innovative element of the test stand is the original method of phase angle measurement using a single vibration sensor fitted with a system forcing and ensuring full measurement synchronization and dynamic state repeatability. Additionally, numerical models of tested objects were produced and simulations of their oscillations were performed. Based on that, the properties of the tested material (PLA) were considered, with a special focus on the density, elastic modulus, and damping. The analyses were conducted for a few elements with different dimensions at different vibration frequencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mechanical Testing of Engineering Materials)
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Article
Investigation of the Impact of Load on the Magnetic Field Strength of the Crane by the Magnetic Metal Memory Technique
Materials 2020, 13(23), 5559; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13235559 - 06 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 732
Abstract
The paper deals with the problem of applicability of the metal magnetic memory (MMM) technique in the crane structural inspection and monitoring. The MMM method does not require the external magnetization of a structure that results in reduction of downtime of maintenance operations. [...] Read more.
The paper deals with the problem of applicability of the metal magnetic memory (MMM) technique in the crane structural inspection and monitoring. The MMM method does not require the external magnetization of a structure that results in reduction of downtime of maintenance operations. Measurement of the intensity of the self-magnetic leakage signal can be an alternative to other non-destructive methods used for inspection of a large crane’s structure and equipment. However, the complexity of the residual magnetization effect in the MMM technique is the problem with its application. Thus, the magnetic flux leakage behavior on the crane girder surface under different measurements and the crane’s load conditions is analyzed based on the results obtained during experiments carried out on the overhead traveling crane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mechanical Testing of Engineering Materials)
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Article
Tensile Deformation Behavior of Typical Porous Laminate Structure at Different Temperatures
Materials 2020, 13(23), 5369; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13235369 - 26 Nov 2020
Viewed by 545
Abstract
In this study, the Ni-Cr-W superalloy GH3230 is used as the test material. According to the actual structure of the flame tube, a porous laminate structure specimen is designed. The structure consists of impact holes, overflow holes and pin fins. High-temperature tensile tests [...] Read more.
In this study, the Ni-Cr-W superalloy GH3230 is used as the test material. According to the actual structure of the flame tube, a porous laminate structure specimen is designed. The structure consists of impact holes, overflow holes and pin fins. High-temperature tensile tests at 650 °C, 750 °C and 850 °C were carried out to study the high-temperature mechanical properties and fracture mechanism of the specimens of porous laminate structure, and the strain nephogram of the specimens were obtained by digital image correlation (DIC) technique. Due to the large number and dense arrangement of overflow holes, an obvious hole interference effect can be found from the strain nephogram. The stress concentration around the pore and the interference between the pores provide priority places and paths for the initiation and propagation of microcracks. The test found that the microcracks of the porous laminate structure first occurred around the hole, the overflow surface fractured first, after which the impact surface fractured. The strength of the alloy exhibits a significant temperature sensitivity to temperature. From 650 °C to 750 °C, the ultimate strength (σb) and yield strength (σ0.2) decrease slightly, but they decrease significantly at 850 °C. The microstructure of the fracture surface shows that all microcracks occur at the interface between the matrix and the carbides but that the fracture mode of the specimens gradually changes from intergranular fracture to transgranular fracture as the temperature increases. Due to the pinning effect of the intracrystalline diffusive solute atoms on the dislocations, the stress-strain curves of the high-temperature tensile tests at 650 °C and 750 °C showed zigzag characteristic fluctuations during the strengthening stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mechanical Testing of Engineering Materials)
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Article
Researches and Simulation of Elastic Recovery Phenomena during Roller Burnishing Process of Macro-Asperities of Surface
Materials 2020, 13(22), 5276; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13225276 - 21 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 640
Abstract
The paper presents preliminary studies of a new innovative surface treatment method—the process of roller burnishing of macro-irregularities of the surface. As part of the work, the possibility of plastic shaping of the surface macrostructure with indentations (plateau structure), which will show anti-wear [...] Read more.
The paper presents preliminary studies of a new innovative surface treatment method—the process of roller burnishing of macro-irregularities of the surface. As part of the work, the possibility of plastic shaping of the surface macrostructure with indentations (plateau structure), which will show anti-wear properties through appropriate surface shaping and the compressive stress state in the product’s top layer, was investigated. The essence of the paper is the analysis of one of the aspects of the application of this processing method, i.e., the influence of the elastic recovery of the product on its technological quality measured by dimensional deviation. The main objective of the work is to develop adequate methods and mathematical models to enable the design of the macro-asperities of the surface burnishing process to maintain the dimensional tolerance of the shaped parts. The results of dependencies of elastic recovery of the asperities and the deviation of height, Δht, for sample depths of burnishing were presented. The model tests of the elastic recovery of the model material using the visioplasticity method show that with the increase of the value of the vertical surface asperities, the value of the elastic recovery of the material decreases. The increase of the deviation of the asperities’ height causes a decrease in the value of elastic recovery. With the increase of the value of the vertical angle of the surface roughness, the value of the elastic recovery of the material is smaller. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mechanical Testing of Engineering Materials)
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Article
Deformation of Bioinspired MXene-Based Polymer Composites with Brick and Mortar Structures: A Computational Analysis
Materials 2020, 13(22), 5189; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13225189 - 17 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1172
Abstract
In this work, the deformation behavior of MXene-based polymer composites with bioinspired brick and mortar structures is analyzed. MXene/Polymer nanocomposites are modeled at microscale for bioinspired configurations of nacre-mimetic brick-and-mortar assembly structure. MXenes (brick) with polymer matrix (mortar) are modeled using classical analytical [...] Read more.
In this work, the deformation behavior of MXene-based polymer composites with bioinspired brick and mortar structures is analyzed. MXene/Polymer nanocomposites are modeled at microscale for bioinspired configurations of nacre-mimetic brick-and-mortar assembly structure. MXenes (brick) with polymer matrix (mortar) are modeled using classical analytical methods and numerical methods based on finite elements (FE). The analytical methods provide less accurate estimation of elastic properties compared to the numerical one. MXene nanocomposite models analyzed with the FE method provide estimates of elastic constants in the same order of magnitude as literature-reported experimental results. Bioinspired design of MXene nanocomposites results in an effective increase of Young’s modulus of the nanocomposite by 25.1% and strength (maximum stress capacity within elastic limits) enhanced by 42.3%. The brick and mortar structure of the nanocomposites leads to an interlocking mechanism between MXene fillers in the polymer matrix, resulting in effective load transfer, good strength, and damage resistance. This is demonstrated in this paper by numerical analysis of MXene nanocomposites subjected to quasi-static loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mechanical Testing of Engineering Materials)
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Article
A Novel Method for Changing the Dynamics of Slender Elements Using Sponge Particles Structures
Materials 2020, 13(21), 4874; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13214874 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 775
Abstract
The paper concerns problems related to controlling the dynamic properties of beam-like elements. The parameters of the investigated system can be changed by external factors, resulting in partial changes in the system mass redistribution. It is assumed that it is possible to control [...] Read more.
The paper concerns problems related to controlling the dynamic properties of beam-like elements. The parameters of the investigated system can be changed by external factors, resulting in partial changes in the system mass redistribution. It is assumed that it is possible to control the system dynamics by shaping the object frequency structure. The paper introduces the mathematical model of the investigated cantilever beam filled with a Sponge Particle Structure. The continuous model has been simplified to a discrete multi-degree of freedom system. The influence of the system parameters on its behavior is discussed in details. The possible applications of the presented concept are proposed. The spectral vibration analyses were carried out. Theoretical considerations enabled the use of the preliminary semi-active method for controlling the vibration frequencies through a mass redistribution. Experimental studies were carried out to verify the proposed mathematical model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mechanical Testing of Engineering Materials)
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Article
Innovative Controllable Torsional Damper Based on Vacuum Packed Particles
Materials 2020, 13(19), 4356; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13194356 - 30 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 756
Abstract
In this paper a new concept of a controllable granular damper is presented. The introduced prototype works based on so-called vacuum packed particles (VPPs). Such structures are made of granular materials located in a soft and hermetic encapsulation. As a result of generating [...] Read more.
In this paper a new concept of a controllable granular damper is presented. The introduced prototype works based on so-called vacuum packed particles (VPPs). Such structures are made of granular materials located in a soft and hermetic encapsulation. As a result of generating a partial vacuum inside the system, the structure starts to behave like a nonclassical solid body. The global physical (mechanical) features of VPPs depend on the level of internal underpressure. The introduced prototype of a controllable torsional damper exhibits various dissipative properties as a function of internal underpressure. The design details of the investigated device are presented. Basic laboratory tests results are discussed. To describe the hysteretic behavior of the device, the Bouc–Wen rheological model has been modified and adopted. Nonlinear functions of underpressure have been introduced to the initial model formulation. The developed Bouc–Wen model has been applied to capture the real response of the VPP torsional damper prototype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mechanical Testing of Engineering Materials)
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