Special Issue "Metal Combustion"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Nick G Glumac
Website
Guest Editor
Mechanical Science and Engineering Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, United States
Interests: combustion of metals; spectroscopy of metallized explosives and pyrotechnics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Metal combustion is often considered a mature field since many of the seminal works that are still often cited were in the 1950s and 1960s. Despite decades of research, robust predictive models for the oxidation of even our most well understood metals like aluminum, remain elusive. So much has been learned, yet there is still so much to know. Additionally elusive are the engineering realizations of the promises of metal combustion like high specific energies for, propellants and explosive systems. New techniques and approaches, over the past two decades have generated a renaissance in metal combustion research. In part, there has been a focus on the short length scales, looking at micron and sub-micron particulate scales where many of the observed trends in oxidation rate, ignition behavior, and flame structure break down. The potential for fast reacting systems of sub-micron metal particulate systems remains great, though many observed phenomena at these scales remain puzzling.  In addition, though pure elemental metal systems have been most often studied for oxidation behavior, the recent focus—following that of the structural materials community—is increasingly on alloyed and multi-component systems including coated, treated, or washed particles. Thermitic and intermetallic systems have seen extensive interest, especially with the emergence of mechanical alloys, which has greatly expanded the chemistries available for study. Such multicomponent systems have the potential to surmount many of the known challenges of metal combustion (slow oxidation rate, high ignition temperatures, incomplete combustion, etc.). Finally, new tools have been brought to bear on the problem, allowing metal combustion to be examined in ways that were not possible before. Environmental transmission electron microscopy, dynamic x-ray diffraction, and other materials science technologies have allowed discernment of new temporal and spatial scales.

It is my pleasure to assist with this Special Issue focusing on new developments in metal combustion which I hope will showcase some of the exciting research being undertaken in this active field.

Prof. Nick G Glumac
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • metal combustion
  • ignition
  • oxidation
  • alloys

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Imaging Aluminum Particles in Solid-Propellant Flames Using 5 kHz LIF of Al Atoms
Materials 2019, 12(15), 2421; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12152421 - 29 Jul 2019
Abstract
Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of aluminum atoms (Al-PLIF) is used to analyze the spatio-temporal behavior of aluminized solid propellant combustion. Using alternating LIF and chemiluminescence emission images of the particles in the gaseous and liquid phase evolving close to and far above the dynamically [...] Read more.
Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of aluminum atoms (Al-PLIF) is used to analyze the spatio-temporal behavior of aluminized solid propellant combustion. Using alternating LIF and chemiluminescence emission images of the particles in the gaseous and liquid phase evolving close to and far above the dynamically varying propellant surface, sequences of images were recorded and analyzed. The good sensitivity achieved enabled us to track the dynamics of the flame in the vicinity of particles detected all along the flame extension and up to 1.5 MPa. Analysis of wide-field images enabled droplet velocity measurements due to the high LIF sampling rate (5 kHz). The observed typical plume structures were in good agreement with alumina-formation prediction and previous shadowgraphy visualization. High-resolution sequences of images showed gaseous distribution behavior around the molten particles. The Al vapor phase was thus found to extend between 3 and 6.5 radii around the particles. Particle detachment dynamics were captured just above the propellant surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Combustion)
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Open AccessArticle
Single Particle Combustion of Pre-Stressed Aluminum
Materials 2019, 12(11), 1737; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12111737 - 29 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
An approach for optimizing fuel particle reactivity involves the metallurgical process of pre-stressing. This study examined the effects of pre-stressing on aluminum (Al) particle ignition delay and burn times upon thermal ignition by laser heating. Pre-stressing was by annealing Al powder at 573 [...] Read more.
An approach for optimizing fuel particle reactivity involves the metallurgical process of pre-stressing. This study examined the effects of pre-stressing on aluminum (Al) particle ignition delay and burn times upon thermal ignition by laser heating. Pre-stressing was by annealing Al powder at 573 K and quenching ranged from slow (i.e., 200 K/min) identified as pre-stressed (PS) Al to fast (i.e., 900 K/min) identified as super quenched (SQ) Al. Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis quantified an order of magnitude which increased dilatational strain that resulted from PS Al and SQ Al compared to untreated (UN) Al powder. The results show PS Al particles exhibit reduced ignition delay times resulting from elevated strain that relaxes upon laser heating. SQ Al particles exhibit faster burn times resulting from delamination at the particle core-shell interface that reduces dilatational strain and promotes accelerated diffusion reactions. These results link the mechanical property of strain to reaction mechanisms associated with shell mechanics that explain ignition and burning behavior, and show pre-stressing has the potential to improve particle reactivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Combustion)
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Open AccessArticle
Burn Time of Metal Nanoparticles
Materials 2019, 12(9), 1368; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12091368 - 26 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This article will discuss the combustion of metal nanoparticles and explain the burn time dependence on particle size. In contrary to common belief in the power law (tb~d0.3), which, in our knowledge, is simply an experimental fit [...] Read more.
This article will discuss the combustion of metal nanoparticles and explain the burn time dependence on particle size. In contrary to common belief in the power law (tb~d0.3), which, in our knowledge, is simply an experimental fit to data, we propose the logarithmic law (tb~ln(d)) that describes well the known results on nano-aluminum combustion. We derived the logarithmic dependence from a simple model taking into account the energy balance on the surface of a burning metal nanoparticle. The model in question is based on the small energy accommodation coefficient (EAC), which was recently utilized to solve experimental puzzles such as the significant temperature gap between the burning nanoparticle and the environment. A discussion on EAC, which value is important for the correct modeling of nanoparticle combustion, is also included. A way to generalize the considered combustion model is suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Combustion)
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