Special Issue "Luminescent Materials 2013"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2013).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. H.T. Hintzen

Guest Editor
Energy Materials & Devices, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513 (Helix Building, STW 3.42), 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Interests: nitride; energy; luminescence; photocatalysis; phosphor; battery material
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Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Crystal Growth and Spectroscopic Investigations of Tm3+:Li3Ba2Gd3(MoO4)8 Crystal
Materials 2014, 7(1), 496-507; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7010496 - 17 Jan 2014
Cited by 4
Abstract
Tm3+:Li3Ba2Gd3(MoO4)8 crystal has been grown by the top seeded solution growth (TSSG) method from a Li2MoO4 flux. The room temperature polarized absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, and fluorescence decay curves [...] Read more.
Tm3+:Li3Ba2Gd3(MoO4)8 crystal has been grown by the top seeded solution growth (TSSG) method from a Li2MoO4 flux. The room temperature polarized absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, and fluorescence decay curves of the crystal were measured. Based on the Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory, the main spectroscopic parameters of the crystal, including the spontaneous emission probabilities, fluorescence branching ratios, and radiative lifetimes were calculated and analyzed. The broad and strong absorption bands of the crystal show that it can be efficiently pumped by the diode laser, while the large emission cross-sections of the 3F43H6 transition indicate that the crystal is a promising candidate for tunable and short pulse lasers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Luminescent Materials 2013)
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Open AccessArticle
Broadband Luminescence in Rare Earth Doped Sr2SiS4: Relating Energy Levels of Ce3+ and Eu2+
Materials 2013, 6(8), 3663-3675; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6083663 - 21 Aug 2013
Cited by 12
Abstract
Sr2SiS4:Ce3+ is an efficient blue-emitting (460 nm) phosphor, excitable with light of wavelengths up to 420 nm. From the excitation spectrum, we construct the energy level scheme and use it to check the predictive power of the Dorenbos model, relating the positions of [...] Read more.
Sr2SiS4:Ce3+ is an efficient blue-emitting (460 nm) phosphor, excitable with light of wavelengths up to 420 nm. From the excitation spectrum, we construct the energy level scheme and use it to check the predictive power of the Dorenbos model, relating the positions of the Ce3+ energy levels with those of Eu2+ in the same host. For strontium thiosilicate, this method gives excellent results and allows us to determine which of two available crystallographic sites is occupied by cerium. We use the Dorenbos method for extracting information on the coordination of Ce3+ from the observed crystal field splitting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Luminescent Materials 2013)
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Open AccessArticle
Fluorescent Magnetic Bioprobes by Surface Modification of Magnetite Nanoparticles
Materials 2013, 6(8), 3213-3225; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6083213 - 31 Jul 2013
Cited by 17
Abstract
Bimodal nanoprobes comprising both magnetic and optical functionalities have been prepared via a sequential two-step process. Firstly, magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) with well-defined cubic shape and an average dimension of 80 nm were produced by hydrolysis of iron sulfate and were then surface modified [...] Read more.
Bimodal nanoprobes comprising both magnetic and optical functionalities have been prepared via a sequential two-step process. Firstly, magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) with well-defined cubic shape and an average dimension of 80 nm were produced by hydrolysis of iron sulfate and were then surface modified with silica shells by using the sol-gel method. The Fe3O4@SiO2 particles were then functionalized with the fluorophore, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), mediated by assembled shells of the cationic polyelectrolyte, polyethyleneimine (PEI). The Fe3O4 functionalized particles were then preliminary evaluated as fluorescent and magnetic probes by performing studies in which neuroblast cells have been contacted with these nanomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Luminescent Materials 2013)
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Open AccessArticle
Red, Green, and Blue Photoluminescence of Ba2SiO4:M (M = Eu3+, Eu2+, Sr2+) Nanophosphors
Materials 2013, 6(8), 3079-3093; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6083079 - 24 Jul 2013
Cited by 27
Abstract
Divalent europium doped barium orthosilicate is a very important phosphor for the production of light emitting diodes (LEDs), generally associated to the green emission color of micron-sized crystals synthesized by means of solid-state reactions. This work presents the combustion synthesis as an energy [...] Read more.
Divalent europium doped barium orthosilicate is a very important phosphor for the production of light emitting diodes (LEDs), generally associated to the green emission color of micron-sized crystals synthesized by means of solid-state reactions. This work presents the combustion synthesis as an energy and time-saving preparation method for very small nano-sized Ba2SiO4 particles, flexibly doped to acquire different emission energies. The size of the resulting spherical nanoparticles (NPs) of the green emitting Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ was estimated to about 35 nm applying the Scherrer equation and further characterized with aid of atomic force microscopy (AFM) as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This phosphor is able to build homogeneous luminescent suspensions and was successfully down-sized without changing the optical properties in comparison to the bulk phosphors. Besides the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and the different types of microscopy, the samples were characterized by luminescence spectroscopy. Undoped Ba2SiO4 NPs are not luminescent, but show characteristic red emission of the 5D07FJ (J = 0–4) electronic transitions when doped with Eu3+ ions. Moreover, these orthosilicate nanoparticles generate blue light at low temperatures due to impurity-trapped excitons, introduced by the partial substitution of the Ba2+ with Sr2+ ions in the Ba2SiO4 lattice causing a substantial distortion. A model for the temperature behavior of the defect luminescence as well as for their nature is provided, based on temperature-dependent luminescence spectra and lifetime measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Luminescent Materials 2013)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of New RE3+ Doped Li1+xTa1−xTixO3 (RE: Eu, Sm, Er, Tm, and Dy) Phosphors with Various Emission Colors
Materials 2013, 6(7), 2768-2776; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6072768 - 11 Jul 2013
Cited by 9
Abstract
New phosphors with various emission colors for RE3+ doped Li1+xTa1−xTixO3 (LTT) (RE: Eu, Sm, Er, Tm, and Dy) were synthesized by electric furnace at 1423 K for 15 h. The microstructure of the [...] Read more.
New phosphors with various emission colors for RE3+ doped Li1+xTa1−xTixO3 (LTT) (RE: Eu, Sm, Er, Tm, and Dy) were synthesized by electric furnace at 1423 K for 15 h. The microstructure of the host material and the photoluminescence (PL) property were determined and compared to those of RE3+ doped Li1+xNb1−xTixO3 (LNT). In the LTT phosphor, the highest PL intensity was achieved for the mixture composition Li1.11Ta0.89Ti0.11O3 with a LiTaO3 structure, although it has an M-phase superstructure. In the LTT host material, the effective activators were Eu3+ and Sm3+ ions, in contrast to the LNT host material. Here, we discuss the relationship between PL property and the host material’s structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Luminescent Materials 2013)
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of a Poly(3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl) Electrochemiluminescence Device Assisted by Perylene
Materials 2013, 6(5), 1704-1717; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6051704 - 29 Apr 2013
Cited by 13
Abstract
In this study, we report the light-emitting assistance effect of perylene on a polymer electrochemiluminescence (ECL) device using poly(3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3OT). An ECL device is a liquid type self-luminous device with a simple structure, and can be fabricated by a relatively easy procedure. Significant [...] Read more.
In this study, we report the light-emitting assistance effect of perylene on a polymer electrochemiluminescence (ECL) device using poly(3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3OT). An ECL device is a liquid type self-luminous device with a simple structure, and can be fabricated by a relatively easy procedure. Significant improvement in luminescence properties was confirmed when 1.0 wt % perylene was added to the ECL device using 3.0 wt % P3OT. Improvements of about 12 times of the maximum luminescence intensity and about 23 times of the light-emitting time ratio compared with that of a P3OT ECL device were obtained. We conclude that the light-emitting assistance of perylene is achieved by perylene radical ions shuttling electrons to P3OT while they are moving around in the emitting solution. The light-emitting assistance effect of perylene was also confirmed when poly(3-dodecylthiophene-2,5-diyl), which has almost identical electrochemical and photophysical characteristics to those of P3OT, was used instead of P3OT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Luminescent Materials 2013)
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Open AccessArticle
Photoluminescence Study of Gallium Nitride Thin Films Obtained by Infrared Close Space Vapor Transport
Materials 2013, 6(3), 1050-1060; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6031050 - 15 Mar 2013
Cited by 19
Abstract
Photoluminescence (PL) studies in GaN thin films grown by infrared close space vapor transport (CSVT-IR) in vacuum are presented in this work. The growth of GaN thin films was done on a variety of substrates like silicon, sapphire and fused silica. Room temperature [...] Read more.
Photoluminescence (PL) studies in GaN thin films grown by infrared close space vapor transport (CSVT-IR) in vacuum are presented in this work. The growth of GaN thin films was done on a variety of substrates like silicon, sapphire and fused silica. Room temperature PL spectra of all the GaN films show near band-edge emission (NBE) and a broad blue and green luminescence (BL, GL), which can be seen with the naked eye in a bright room. The sample grown by infrared CSVT on the silicon substrate shows several emission peaks from 2.4 to 3.22 eV with a pronounced red shift with respect to the band gap energy. The sample grown on sapphire shows strong and broad ultraviolet emission peaks (UVL) centered at 3.19 eV and it exhibits a red shift of NBE. The PL spectrum of GaN films deposited on fused silica exhibited a unique and strong blue-green emission peak centered at 2.38 eV. The presence of yellow and green luminescence in all samples is related to native defects in the structure such as dislocations in GaN and/or the presence of amorphous phases. We analyze the material quality that can be obtained by CSVT-IR in vacuum, which is a high yield technique with simple equipment set-up, in terms of the PL results obtained in each case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Luminescent Materials 2013)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Persistent Luminescence in Non-Eu2+-Doped Compounds: A Review
Materials 2013, 6(7), 2789-2818; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6072789 - 12 Jul 2013
Cited by 191
Abstract
During the past few decades, the research on persistent luminescent materials has focused mainly on Eu2+-doped compounds. However, the yearly number of publications on non-Eu2+-based materials has also increased steadily. By now, the number of known persistent phosphors has [...] Read more.
During the past few decades, the research on persistent luminescent materials has focused mainly on Eu2+-doped compounds. However, the yearly number of publications on non-Eu2+-based materials has also increased steadily. By now, the number of known persistent phosphors has increased to over 200, of which over 80% are not based on Eu2+, but rather, on intrinsic host defects, transition metals (manganese, chromium, copper, etc.) or trivalent rare earths (cerium, terbium, dysprosium, etc.). In this review, we present an overview of these non-Eu2+-based persistent luminescent materials and their afterglow properties. We also take a closer look at some remaining challenges, such as the excitability with visible light and the possibility of energy transfer between multiple luminescent centers. Finally, we summarize the necessary elements for a complete description of a persistent luminescent material, in order to allow a more objective comparison of these phosphors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Luminescent Materials 2013)
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Open AccessReview
A Review of Luminescent Anionic Nano System: d10 Metallocyanide Excimers and Exciplexes in Alkali Halide Hosts
Materials 2013, 6(7), 2595-2611; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6072595 - 25 Jun 2013
Cited by 15
Abstract
Dicyanoaurate, dicyanoargentate, and dicyanocuprate ions in solution and doped in different alkali halide hosts exhibit interesting photophysical and photochemical behavior, such as multiple emission bands, exciplex tuning, optical memory, and thermochromism. This is attributed to the formation of different sizes of nanoclusters in [...] Read more.
Dicyanoaurate, dicyanoargentate, and dicyanocuprate ions in solution and doped in different alkali halide hosts exhibit interesting photophysical and photochemical behavior, such as multiple emission bands, exciplex tuning, optical memory, and thermochromism. This is attributed to the formation of different sizes of nanoclusters in solution and in doped hosts. A series of spectroscopic methods (luminescence, UV-reflectance, IR, and Raman) as well as theoretical calculations have confirmed the existence of excimers and exciplexes. This leads to the tunability of these nano systems over a wide wavelength interval. The population of these nanoclusters varies with temperature and external laser irradiation, which explains the thermochromism and optical memory. DFT calculations indicate an MLCT transition for each nanocluster and the emission energy decreases with increasing cluster size. This is in agreement with the relatively long life-time for the emission peaks and the multiple emission peaks dependence upon cluster concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Luminescent Materials 2013)
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