Special Issue "Erosion Resistance of Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Structure Analysis and Characterization".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Alicja Krystyna Krella
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14, 80-231 Gdansk, Poland
Interests: material degradation; fracture, erosion processes; cavitation erosion; slurry erosion

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Material degradation caused by erosion processes concerns many elements and machines. This occurs in water turbines and pumps, steam turbines, as well as wind turbines, i.e., machines working in the so-called renewable energy. Devices from the automotive and even aviation industries are also exposed to such destruction processes. Thus, they relate to key industries. Knowledge about the degradation process, as well as methods of reducing the speed of such degradation and modeling of erosive processes are important for the efficiency of production and development of these types of industry. They are also important for the protection of the environment due to the reduction in repair frequency. The aim of the Special Issue is to present knowledge about the mentioned aspects.

Dr. Alicja Krystyna Krella
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • cavitation erosion
  • solid particle erosion
  • wear
  • solid materials
  • steels
  • coatings
  • ceramics
  • composites
  • fracture

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Nitrogen Ion Implantation on the Cavitation Erosion Resistance and Cobalt-Based Solid Solution Phase Transformations of HIPed Stellite 6
Materials 2021, 14(9), 2324; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092324 - 29 Apr 2021
Viewed by 325
Abstract
From the wide range of engineering materials traditional Stellite 6 (cobalt alloy) exhibits excellent resistance to cavitation erosion (CE). Nonetheless, the influence of ion implantation of cobalt alloys on the CE behaviour has not been completely clarified by the literature. Thus, this work [...] Read more.
From the wide range of engineering materials traditional Stellite 6 (cobalt alloy) exhibits excellent resistance to cavitation erosion (CE). Nonetheless, the influence of ion implantation of cobalt alloys on the CE behaviour has not been completely clarified by the literature. Thus, this work investigates the effect of nitrogen ion implantation (NII) of HIPed Stellite 6 on the improvement of resistance to CE. Finally, the cobalt-rich matrix phase transformations due to both NII and cavitation load were studied. The CE resistance of stellites ion-implanted by 120 keV N+ ions two fluences: 5 × 1016 cm−2 and 1 × 1017 cm−2 were comparatively analysed with the unimplanted stellite and AISI 304 stainless steel. CE tests were conducted according to ASTM G32 with stationary specimen method. Erosion rate curves and mean depth of erosion confirm that the nitrogen-implanted HIPed Stellite 6 two times exceeds the resistance to CE than unimplanted stellite, and has almost ten times higher CE reference than stainless steel. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms that NII of HIPed Stellite 6 favours transformation of the ε(hcp) to γ(fcc) structure. Unimplanted stellite ε-rich matrix is less prone to plastic deformation than γ and consequently, increase of γ phase effectively holds carbides in cobalt matrix and prevents Cr7C3 debonding. This phenomenon elongates three times the CE incubation stage, slows erosion rate and mitigates the material loss. Metastable γ structure formed by ion implantation consumes the cavitation load for work-hardening and γ → ε martensitic transformation. In further CE stages, phases transform as for unimplanted alloy namely, the cavitation-inducted recovery process, removal of strain, dislocations resulting in increase of γ phase. The CE mechanism was investigated using a surface profilometer, atomic force microscopy, SEM-EDS and XRD. HIPed Stellite 6 wear behaviour relies on the plastic deformation of cobalt matrix, starting at Cr7C3/matrix interfaces. Once the Cr7C3 particles lose from the matrix restrain, they debond from matrix and are removed from the material. Carbides detachment creates cavitation pits which initiate cracks propagation through cobalt matrix, that leads to loss of matrix phase and as a result the CE proceeds with a detachment of massive chunk of materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Erosion Resistance of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Thermal Treatment and Erosion Aggressiveness on Resistance of S235JR Steel to Cavitation and Slurry
Materials 2021, 14(6), 1456; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14061456 - 16 Mar 2021
Viewed by 306
Abstract
S235JR steel is used in many applications, but its resistance to the erosion processes has been poorly studied. To investigate this resistance, cavitation, and slurry erosion tests were conducted. These tests were carried out at different erosion intensities, i.e., different flow rates in [...] Read more.
S235JR steel is used in many applications, but its resistance to the erosion processes has been poorly studied. To investigate this resistance, cavitation, and slurry erosion tests were conducted. These tests were carried out at different erosion intensities, i.e., different flow rates in the cavitation tunnel with a system of barricades and different rotational speeds in the slurry pot. The steel was tested as-received and after thermal treatment at 930 °C, which lowered the hardness of the steel. To better understand the degradation processes, in addition to mass loss measurements, surface roughness and hardness were measured. Along with increasing erosion intensity, the mass loss increased as well. However, the nature of the increase in mass loss, as well as the effect of steel hardness on this mass loss, was different for each of the erosion processes. In the cavitation erosion tests, the mass loss increased linearly with the increase in flow velocity, while in the slurry tests this relationship was polynomial, indicating a strong increase in mass losses with an increase in rotational speed. Cavitation erosion resulted in stronger and deeper strain hardening than slurry. Surface damage from cavitation erosion tests was mainly deep pits, voids, and cracks during the slurry tests, while flaking was the most significant damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Erosion Resistance of Materials)
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