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Special Issue "3D & 4D Printing in Engineering Applications"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Materials Characterization".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2023 | Viewed by 1785

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Tomasz Kozior
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Mechatronics and Mechanical Engineering, Kielce University of Technology, 25-314 Kielce, Poland
Interests: 3D printing in metrology; mechanical properties; tribological aspects
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the last 20 years, 3D printing has greatly evolved, and this applies both to the development of new technologies of additive manufacturing, the chemistry of the materials used, increasing the metrological accuracy of manufactured objects by improving the design of 3D printers and by optimizing, as well as increasing the mechanical and tribological properties of the manufactured objects. Currently, the range of materials used is so large that it includes both plastics, ceramics, and metals, including materials with new very advanced properties. 3D printing using new intelligent materials, very often based on composites, and innovative design and technological solutions have evolved into a new concept of the so-called 4D printing. The new concept assumes taking into account another fourth dimension - time. Under the influence of an appropriate stimulus of 3D printing, the structure changes its shape or properties by implementing the concepts of 4D printing. It can be said that 4D printing is a kind of new manufacturing philosophy based on 3D printing.

The presented Special Issue concerns the publication of innovative scientific research, review articles, and communications related to modern technologies of additive manufacturing and its materials, taking into account innovative tools that also fit into the realities of industrial transformation to Industry 4.0. The presented Special Issue is aimed at the publication of the results of both theoretical and experimental research including topics including:

  • 3D/4D printing;
  • Rapid prototyping
  • Unconventional manufacturing;
  • Metrology in 3D printing;
  • Surface texture analysis;
  • Quality of 3D/4D printed parts;
  • Tribology in 3D printing;
  • Mechanical properties investigation;
  • Composites materials;
  • 3D/4D printing engineering applications;
  • 3D printing in Industry 4.0;
  • Robotics in 3D printing;
  • Novel 3D printing systems;
  • Review of progress in 3D/4D printing;
  • Manufacturing problems;
  • Machining of 3D printed elements;
  • Process control;
  • Simulation analysis.

The Special Issue was created in connection with the international conference "Rapid Prototyping", which will be held in Kielce, Poland on September 19-20, 2022. The link to the event is:

www.szybkieprototypowanie.eu.

However, we encourage all researchers, including those who do not plan to participate in the event, to submit their original research papers in the presented Special Issue.

Dr. Tomasz Kozior
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • 3D/4D printing
  • metrology
  • unconventional manufacturing
  • industry 4.0
  • process control
  • tribology
  • composites materials
  • polymers in 3D printing
  • simulation

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Article
A Study of the Mechanical Properties of Naturally Aged Photopolymers Printed Using the PJM Technology
Materials 2023, 16(1), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16010400 - 01 Jan 2023
Viewed by 545
Abstract
Additive manufacturing is being increasingly used both for rapid prototyping as well as the fabrication of finished components. It is important to determine how the properties of 3D printed materials change over time and how they affect the durability and usability of products. [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing is being increasingly used both for rapid prototyping as well as the fabrication of finished components. It is important to determine how the properties of 3D printed materials change over time and how they affect the durability and usability of products. The aim of the research presented in this article was to find out what influence the natural aging period had on the mechanical properties, especially the tensile strength and modulus of elasticity, of specimens made from the selected photocurable resins using the PolyJet Matrix (PJM) technology. The tests involved determining the tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of specimens fabricated in 2013 and 2014 using two types of photosensitive resins, i.e., FullCure 720 and VeroWhite, respectively. Some of the specimens were stored under laboratory conditions until July 2022 and then tested using a universal testing machine. The experimental data obtained in 2022 for the naturally aged models were compared with those reported for the as-printed specimens. One of the main findings of this study was that the tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of the naturally aged specimens were largely dependent on the printing direction (model orientation on the build tray). The test results show that aging generally decreased the tensile strength of the specimens. In one case, however, an increase in this property was observed. For the X and Y printing directions, Rm declined by 27.1% and 30.7%, respectively. For the Z direction, a decrease of only 5.5% was reported, for Full Cure 720. The modulus of elasticity of the models tested in 2022 differed considerably from that reported for the as-printed objects. Higher values of the modulus of elasticity implied that the material stiffness increased over time, and this is a common phenomenon in polymers. Interesting results were obtained for VeroWhite specimens. The modulus of elasticity decreased significantly by 25.1% and 42.4% for the specimens printed in the X and Z directions, respectively. However, for the models built in the Y direction, it increased by 27.4%. The experimental data may be of significance to users of products manufactured using the PJM method as well as to researchers dealing with the durability and reliability of such materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D & 4D Printing in Engineering Applications)
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Article
Electrical Conductivity of Additively Manufactured Copper and Silver for Electrical Winding Applications
Materials 2022, 15(21), 7563; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15217563 - 28 Oct 2022
Viewed by 847
Abstract
Efficient and power-dense electrical machines are critical in driving the next generation of green energy technologies for many industries including automotive, aerospace and energy. However, one of the primary requirements to enable this is the fabrication of compact custom windings with optimised materials [...] Read more.
Efficient and power-dense electrical machines are critical in driving the next generation of green energy technologies for many industries including automotive, aerospace and energy. However, one of the primary requirements to enable this is the fabrication of compact custom windings with optimised materials and geometries. Electrical machine windings rely on highly electrically conductive materials, and therefore, the Additive Manufacturing (AM) of custom copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) windings offers opportunities to simultaneously improve efficiency through optimised materials, custom geometries and topology and thermal management through integrated cooling strategies. Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) is the most mature AM technology for metals, however, laser processing highly reflective and conductive metals such as Cu and Ag is highly challenging due to insufficient energy absorption. In this regard, this study details the 400 W L-PBF processing of high-purity Cu, Ag and Cu–Ag alloys and the resultant electrical conductivity performance. Six Cu and Ag material variants are investigated in four comparative studies characterising the influence of material composition, powder recoating, laser exposure and electropolishing. The highest density and electrical conductivity achieved was 88% and 73% IACS, respectively. To aid in the application of electrical insulation coatings, electropolishing parameters are established to improve surface roughness. Finally, proof-of-concept electrical machine coils are fabricated, highlighting the potential for 400 W L-PBF processing of Cu and Ag, extending the current state of the art. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D & 4D Printing in Engineering Applications)
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Graphical abstract

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: 3D/4D Printing - Progress and Future of Technologies and Materials

Author: Tomasz Kozior

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