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Correlation between Fatty Acid Profile and Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Common Australian Seafood by-Products

Marine Ecology Research Centre, Southern Cross University, Lismore 2480, Australia
Division of Research & Innovation, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba 4350, Australia
Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville 3052, Australia
Southern Cross Plant Science, Southern Cross University, Lismore 2480, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the manuscript.
Mar. Drugs 2019, 17(3), 155;
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 2 March 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-inflammatory Agents)
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Marine organisms are a rich source of biologically active lipids with anti-inflammatory activities. These lipids may be enriched in visceral organs that are waste products from common seafood. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analyses were performed to compare the fatty acid compositions of lipid extracts from some common seafood organisms, including octopus (Octopus tetricus), squid (Sepioteuthis australis), Australian sardine (Sardinops sagax), salmon (Salmo salar) and school prawns (Penaeus plebejus). The lipid extracts were tested for anti-inflammatory activity by assessing their inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse cells. The lipid extract from both the flesh and waste tissue all contained high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and significantly inhibited NO and TNFα production. Lipid extracts from the cephalopod mollusks S. australis and O. tetricus demonstrated the highest total PUFA content, the highest level of omega 3 (ω-3) PUFAs, and the highest anti-inflammatory activity. However, multivariate analysis indicates the complex mixture of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids may all influence the anti-inflammatory activity of marine lipid extracts. This study confirms that discarded parts of commonly consumed seafood species provide promising sources for the development of new potential anti-inflammatory nutraceuticals. View Full-Text
Keywords: seafood waste; polyunsaturated fatty acid; NO inhibition; fish oil; marine nutraceuticals seafood waste; polyunsaturated fatty acid; NO inhibition; fish oil; marine nutraceuticals

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Ahmad, T.B.; Rudd, D.; Kotiw, M.; Liu, L.; Benkendorff, K. Correlation between Fatty Acid Profile and Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Common Australian Seafood by-Products. Mar. Drugs 2019, 17, 155.

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