Special Issue "Marine Glycomics"

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (18 February 2022) | Viewed by 19005

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Yuki Fujii
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki International University, 2825-7 Huis Ten Bosch, Sasebo, Nagasaki 859-3298, Japan
Interests: glycobiology; apoptosis; biochemistry; marine biology; marine lectin
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Marco Gerdol
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste, Via Licio Giorgieri 5, 34127 Trieste, Italy
Interests: antimicrobial peptides; bivalves; defense peptides; immunity; molecular evolution
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Yasuhiro Ozeki
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Sciences, Yokohama City University, 22-2, Seto, Kanazawa-Ku, Yokohama 236-0027, Japan
Interests: glycobiology; lectins; marine invertebrates
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleague,

Marine creatures are rich sources of glycoconjugate-containing glycans and have diversified structures. The advance of genomics has provided a valuable clue for their production and developments. This information will encourage breeding and engineering functional polysaccharides with slime ingredients in algae. These glycans will have the potential for applications to antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial drugs in addition to health supplements and cosmetics. The combination of both biochemical and transcriptome approaches of marine creatures will get the opportunity to discover new activities of proteins such as glycan-relating enzymes and lectins. These proteins will also be introduced to experimental and medical purposes, such as diagnostics and trial studies.

The topic of marine glycomics is also focusing on understanding the physiological properties of marine creatures, such as body defense against pathogens and cancers. In the competitions for natural selection, living creatures have evolved both their glycans and their recognition. They have primitive systems of immunity, and not few of their mechanisms are closely relating to glycans. If we are able to describe the accumulation of data of glycans of creatures living in the seashore and the oceans , we may be able to anticipate a time when we can talk about the ecosystem with glycans. That knowledge will be useful for the development of drugs that cure our diseases and for an understanding of living systems in addition to the preservation of living environments.

This Special Issue welcomes interdisciplinary articles and reviews relating to the wide topics of current glycoscience and glycoengineering.

For recent examples of Special Issue websites: https://www.mdpi.com/journal/marinedrugs/special_issues/marineglycobiology


Dr. Yuki Fujii
Dr. Marco Gerdol
Prof. Dr. Yasuhiro Ozeki
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cell signaling
  • deep-sea
  • glycomics
  • infections
  • lectins
  • oligosaccharides
  • origins of life
  • polysaccharides
  • structure of glycans
  • transcriptome

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Coming New Age of Marine Glycomics: The Fundamental, Medical, and Ecological Aspects
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(10), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20100613 - 28 Sep 2022
Viewed by 475
Abstract
This Special Issue “Marine Glycomics” (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/marinedrugs/special_issues/Marine_Glycomics, accessed on 12 September 2022) provided new approachesand information on bioactive compounds, such as glycans and lectins from marine animals,seaweeds, and microorganisms for the application of clinical therapy and elucidation of thephysiological functions [...] Read more.
This Special Issue “Marine Glycomics” (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/marinedrugs/special_issues/Marine_Glycomics, accessed on 12 September 2022) provided new approachesand information on bioactive compounds, such as glycans and lectins from marine animals,seaweeds, and microorganisms for the application of clinical therapy and elucidation of thephysiological functions of marine organisms [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycomics)

Research

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Article
Taxonomic and Bioactivity Characterizations of Mameliella alba Strain LZ-28 Isolated from Highly Toxic Marine Dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella LZT09
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20050321 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1121
Abstract
Microalgae host varied microbial consortium harboring cross-kingdom interactions with fundamental ecological significance in aquatic ecosystems. Revealing the complex biofunctions of the cultivable bacteria of phycosphere microbiota is one vital basis for deeply understanding the mechanisms governing these dynamic associations. In this study, a [...] Read more.
Microalgae host varied microbial consortium harboring cross-kingdom interactions with fundamental ecological significance in aquatic ecosystems. Revealing the complex biofunctions of the cultivable bacteria of phycosphere microbiota is one vital basis for deeply understanding the mechanisms governing these dynamic associations. In this study, a new light-yellow pigmented bacterial strain LZ-28 was isolated from the highly-toxic and harmful algal bloom-forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella LZT09. Collective phenotypic and genotypic profiles were obtained to confidently identify this strain as a new Mameliellaalba member. Comparative genomic analysis showed that strain LZ-28 shared highly similar functional features with other four marine algae-derived M. alba strains in spite of their distinctive isolation sources. Based on the bioactivity assaying, the mutual growth-promoting effects between bacterial strain LZ-28 and algal strain LZT09 were observed. After the culture conditions were optimized, strain LZ-28 demonstrated an extraordinary production ability for its bioflocculanting exopolysaccharides (EPS). Moreover, the portions of two monosaccharides glucose and fucose of the EPS were found to positively contribute to the bioflocculanting capacity. Therefore, the present study sheds light on the similar genomic features among the selected M. alba strains, and it also reveals the potential pharmaceutical, environmental and biotechnological implications of active EPS produced by this new Mameliella alba strain LZ-28 recovered from toxic bloom-forming marine dinoflagellate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycomics)
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Article
First Insights into the Repertoire of Secretory Lectins in Rotifers
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(2), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20020130 - 09 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1411
Abstract
Due to their high biodiversity and adaptation to a mutable and challenging environment, aquatic lophotrochozoan animals are regarded as a virtually unlimited source of bioactive molecules. Among these, lectins, i.e., proteins with remarkable carbohydrate-recognition properties involved in immunity, reproduction, self/nonself recognition and several [...] Read more.
Due to their high biodiversity and adaptation to a mutable and challenging environment, aquatic lophotrochozoan animals are regarded as a virtually unlimited source of bioactive molecules. Among these, lectins, i.e., proteins with remarkable carbohydrate-recognition properties involved in immunity, reproduction, self/nonself recognition and several other biological processes, are particularly attractive targets for biotechnological research. To date, lectin research in the Lophotrochozoa has been restricted to the most widespread phyla, which are the usual targets of comparative immunology studies, such as Mollusca and Annelida. Here we provide the first overview of the repertoire of the secretory lectin-like molecules encoded by the genomes of six target rotifer species: Brachionus calyciflorus, Brachionus plicatilis, Proales similis (class Monogononta), Adineta ricciae, Didymodactylos carnosus and Rotaria sordida (class Bdelloidea). Overall, while rotifer secretory lectins display a high molecular diversity and belong to nine different structural classes, their total number is significantly lower than for other groups of lophotrochozoans, with no evidence of lineage-specific expansion events. Considering the high evolutionary divergence between rotifers and the other major sister phyla, their widespread distribution in aquatic environments and the ease of their collection and rearing in laboratory conditions, these organisms may represent interesting targets for glycobiological studies, which may allow the identification of novel carbohydrate-binding proteins with peculiar biological properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycomics)
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Article
A Novel C1q Domain-Containing Protein Isolated from the Mollusk Modiolus kurilensis Recognizing Glycans Enriched with Acidic Galactans and Mannans
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(12), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120668 - 26 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1311
Abstract
C1q domain-containing (C1qDC) proteins are a group of biopolymers involved in immune response as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in a lectin-like manner. A new protein MkC1qDC from the hemolymph plasma of Modiolus kurilensis bivalve mollusk widespread in the Northwest Pacific was purified. The [...] Read more.
C1q domain-containing (C1qDC) proteins are a group of biopolymers involved in immune response as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in a lectin-like manner. A new protein MkC1qDC from the hemolymph plasma of Modiolus kurilensis bivalve mollusk widespread in the Northwest Pacific was purified. The isolation procedure included ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by affinity chromatography on pectin-Sepharose. The full-length MkC1qDC sequence was assembled using de novo mass-spectrometry peptide sequencing complemented with N-terminal Edman’s degradation, and included 176 amino acid residues with molecular mass of 19 kDa displaying high homology to bivalve C1qDC proteins. MkC1qDC demonstrated antibacterial properties against Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains. MkC1qDC binds to a number of saccharides in Ca2+-dependent manner which characterized by structural meta-similarity in acidic group enrichment of galactose and mannose derivatives incorporated in diversified molecular species of glycans. Alginate, κ-carrageenan, fucoidan, and pectin were found to be highly effective inhibitors of MkC1qDC activity. Yeast mannan, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN) and mucin showed an inhibitory effect at concentrations three orders of magnitude greater than for the most effective saccharides. MkC1qDC localized to the mussel hemal system and interstitial compartment. Intriguingly, MkC1qDC was found to suppress proliferation of human adenocarcinoma HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner, indicating to the biomedical potential of MkC1qDC protein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycomics)
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Article
The Toxicology of Native Fucosylated Glycosaminoglycans and the Safety of Their Depolymerized Products as Anticoagulants
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(9), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19090487 - 27 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1274
Abstract
Fucosylated glycosaminoglycan (FG) from sea cucumber is a potent anticoagulant by inhibiting intrinsic coagulation tenase (iXase). However, high-molecular-weight FGs can activate platelets and plasma contact system, and induce hypotension in rats, which limits its application. Herein, we found that FG from T. ananas [...] Read more.
Fucosylated glycosaminoglycan (FG) from sea cucumber is a potent anticoagulant by inhibiting intrinsic coagulation tenase (iXase). However, high-molecular-weight FGs can activate platelets and plasma contact system, and induce hypotension in rats, which limits its application. Herein, we found that FG from T. ananas (TaFG) and FG from H. fuscopunctata (HfFG) at 4.0 mg/kg (i.v.) could cause significant cardiovascular and respiratory dysfunction in rats, even lethality, while their depolymerized products had no obvious side effects. After injection, native FG increased rat plasma kallikrein activity and levels of the vasoactive peptide bradykinin (BK), consistent with their contact activation activity, which was assumed to be the cause of hypotension in rats. However, the hemodynamic effects of native FG cannot be prevented by the BK receptor antagonist. Further study showed that native FG induced in vivo procoagulation, thrombocytopenia, and pulmonary embolism. Additionally, its lethal effect could be prevented by anticoagulant combined with antiplatelet drugs. In summary, the acute toxicity of native FG is mainly ascribed to pulmonary microvessel embolism due to platelet aggregation and contact activation-mediated coagulation, while depolymerized FG is a safe anticoagulant candidate by selectively targeting iXase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycomics)
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Article
Antiproliferative and Antimicrobial Potentials of a Lectin from Aplysia kurodai (Sea Hare) Eggs
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19070394 - 14 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2362
Abstract
In recent years, there has been considerable interest in lectins from marine invertebrates. In this study, the biological activities of a lectin protein isolated from the eggs of Sea hare (Aplysia kurodai) were evaluated. The 40 kDa Aplysia kurodai egg lectin [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been considerable interest in lectins from marine invertebrates. In this study, the biological activities of a lectin protein isolated from the eggs of Sea hare (Aplysia kurodai) were evaluated. The 40 kDa Aplysia kurodai egg lectin (or AKL-40) binds to D-galacturonic acid and D-galactose sugars similar to previously purified isotypes with various molecular weights (32/30 and 16 kDa). The N-terminal sequence of AKL-40 was similar to other sea hare egg lectins. The lectin was shown to be moderately toxic to brine shrimp nauplii, with an LC50 value of 63.63 µg/mL. It agglutinated Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells and reduced their growth, up to 58.3% in vivo when injected into Swiss albino mice at a rate of 2 mg/kg/day. The morphology of these cells apparently changed due to AKL-40, while the expression of apoptosis-related genes (p53, Bax, and Bcl-XL) suggested a possible apoptotic pathway of cell death. AKL-40 also inhibited the growth of human erythroleukemia cells, probably via activating the MAPK/ERK pathway, but did not affect human B-lymphoma cells (Raji) or rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-1). In vitro, lectin suppressed the growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and U937 cells by 37.9% and 31.8%, respectively. Along with strong antifungal activity against Talaromyces verruculosus, AKL showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sonnei, and Bacillus cereus whereas the growth of Escherichia coli was not affected by the lectin. This study explores the antiproliferative and antimicrobial potentials of AKL as well as its involvement in embryo defense of sea hare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycomics)
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Article
Influence of Carbohydrate Additives on the Growth Rate of Microalgae Biomass with an Increased Carbohydrate Content
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(7), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19070381 - 01 Jul 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1846
Abstract
Our study focused on investigating the possibilities of controlling the accumulation of carbohydrates in certain microalgae species (Arthrospira platensis Gomont, Chlorella vulgaris Beijer, and Dunaliella salina Teod) to determine their potential in biofuel production (biohydrogen). It was found that after the introduction [...] Read more.
Our study focused on investigating the possibilities of controlling the accumulation of carbohydrates in certain microalgae species (Arthrospira platensis Gomont, Chlorella vulgaris Beijer, and Dunaliella salina Teod) to determine their potential in biofuel production (biohydrogen). It was found that after the introduction of carbohydrates (0.05 g⋅L−1) into the nutrient medium, the growth rate of the microalgae biomass increased, and the accumulation of carbohydrates reached 41.1%, 47.9%, and 31.7% for Arthrospira platensis, Chlorella vulgaris, and Dunaliella salina, respectively. Chlorella vulgaris had the highest total carbohydrate content (a mixture of glucose, fructose, sucrose, and maltose, 16.97%) among the studied microalgae, while for Arthrospira platensis and Dunaliella salina, the accumulation of total carbohydrates was 9.59% and 8.68%, respectively. Thus, the introduction of carbohydrates into the nutrient medium can stimulate their accumulation in the microalgae biomass, an application of biofuel production (biohydrogen). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycomics)
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Article
Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus Expressing White-Spotted Charr Lectin Regulates Antiviral Response in Tumor Cells and Inhibits Tumor Growth In Vitro and In Vivo
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(6), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19060292 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1179
Abstract
Oncolytic vaccina virus (oncoVV) used for cancer therapy has progressed in recent years. Here, a gene encoding white-spotted charr lectin (WCL) was inserted into an oncoVV vector to form an oncoVV-WCL recombinant virus. OncoVV-WCL induced higher levels of apoptosis and cytotoxicity, and replicated [...] Read more.
Oncolytic vaccina virus (oncoVV) used for cancer therapy has progressed in recent years. Here, a gene encoding white-spotted charr lectin (WCL) was inserted into an oncoVV vector to form an oncoVV-WCL recombinant virus. OncoVV-WCL induced higher levels of apoptosis and cytotoxicity, and replicated faster than control virus in cancer cells. OncoVV-WCL promoted IRF-3 transcriptional activity to induce higher levels of type I interferons (IFNs) and blocked the IFN-induced antiviral response by inhibiting the activity of IFN-stimulated responsive element (ISRE) and the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). The higher levels of viral replication and antitumor activity of oncoVV-WCL were further demonstrated in a mouse xenograft tumor model. Therefore, the engineered oncoVV expressing WCL might provide a new avenue for anticancer gene therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycomics)
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Article
N-Acetyl-d-Glucosamine-Binding Lectin in Acropora tenuis Attracts Specific Symbiodiniaceae Cell Culture Strains
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(3), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19030146 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1622
Abstract
Many corals establish symbiosis with Symbiodiniaceae cells from surrounding environments, but very few Symbiodiniaceae cells exist in the water column. Given that the N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-binding lectin ActL attracts Symbiodiniaceae cells, we hypothesized that corals must attract Symbiodiniaceae cells using ActL to [...] Read more.
Many corals establish symbiosis with Symbiodiniaceae cells from surrounding environments, but very few Symbiodiniaceae cells exist in the water column. Given that the N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-binding lectin ActL attracts Symbiodiniaceae cells, we hypothesized that corals must attract Symbiodiniaceae cells using ActL to acquire them. Anti-ActL antibody inhibited acquisition of Symbiodiniaceae cells, and rearing seawater for juvenile Acropora tenuis contained ActL, suggesting that juvenile A. tenuis discharge ActL to attract these cells. Among eight Symbiodiniaceae cultured strains, ActL attracted NBRC102920 (Symbiodinium tridacnidorum) most strongly followed by CS-161 (Symbiodinium tridacnidorum), CCMP2556 (Durusdinium trenchii), and CCMP1633 (Breviolum sp.); however, it did not attract GTP-A6-Sy (Symbiodinium natans), CCMP421 (Effrenium voratum), FKM0207 (Fugacium sp.), and CS-156 (Fugacium sp.). Juvenile polyps of A. tenuis acquired limited Symbiodiniaceae cell strains, and the number of acquired Symbiodiniaceae cells in a polyp also differed from each other. The number of Symbiodiniaceae cells acquired by juvenile polyps of A. tenuis was correlated with the ActL chemotactic activity. Thus, ActL could be used to attract select Symbiodiniaceae cells and help Symbiodiniaceae cell acquisition in juvenile polyps of A. tenuis, facilitating establishment of symbiosis between A. tenuis and Symbiodiniaceae cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycomics)
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Review

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Review
Bioactive Properties of Peptides and Polysaccharides Derived from Peanut Worms: A Review
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20010010 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2036
Abstract
Peanut worms (Sipunculids) are unsegmented marine worms that usually inhabit shallow waters. Peanut worms are good source of bioactive compounds including peptides and polysaccharides. Many recent studies have investigated the bioactive properties of peptides and polysaccharides derived from peanut worms in order to [...] Read more.
Peanut worms (Sipunculids) are unsegmented marine worms that usually inhabit shallow waters. Peanut worms are good source of bioactive compounds including peptides and polysaccharides. Many recent studies have investigated the bioactive properties of peptides and polysaccharides derived from peanut worms in order to enhance their applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. The peptides and polysaccharides isolated from peanut worms have been reported to possess anti-hypertensive, anti-oxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-hypoxia and wound healing activities through the modulation of various molecular mechanisms. Most researchers used in vitro, cell culture and animal models for the determination of bioactivities of peanut worm derived compounds. However, studies in humans have not been performed considerably. Therefore, it is important to conduct more human studies for better utilization of marine bioactive compounds (peptides and polysaccharides) derived from peanut worms. This review mainly focuses on the bioactive properties of peptides and polysaccharides of peanut worms and their molecular mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycomics)
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Review
Antiparasitic Effects of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Hydrobionts
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(11), 637; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19110637 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1605
Abstract
This review presents materials characterizing sulfated polysaccharides (SPS) of marine hydrobionts (algae and invertebrates) as potential means for the prevention and treatment of protozoa and helminthiasis. The authors have summarized the literature on the pathogenetic targets of protozoa on the host cells and [...] Read more.
This review presents materials characterizing sulfated polysaccharides (SPS) of marine hydrobionts (algae and invertebrates) as potential means for the prevention and treatment of protozoa and helminthiasis. The authors have summarized the literature on the pathogenetic targets of protozoa on the host cells and on the antiparasitic potential of polysaccharides from red, brown and green algae as well as certain marine invertebrates. Information about the mechanisms of action of these unique compounds in diseases caused by protozoa has also been summarized. SPS is distinguished by high antiparasitic activity, good solubility and an almost complete absence of toxicity. In the long term, this allows for the consideration of these compounds as effective and attractive candidates on which to base drugs, biologically active food additives and functional food products with antiparasitic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycomics)
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Review
Pharmacological Activities of Sulfated Fucose-Rich Polysaccharides after Oral Administration: Perspectives for the Development of New Carbohydrate-Based Drugs
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(8), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19080425 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1594
Abstract
Marine organisms are a source of active biomolecules with immense therapeutic and nutraceutical potential. Sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides are present in large quantities in these organisms with important pharmacological effects in several biological systems. These polysaccharides include sulfated fucan (as fucoidan) and fucosylated chondroitin [...] Read more.
Marine organisms are a source of active biomolecules with immense therapeutic and nutraceutical potential. Sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides are present in large quantities in these organisms with important pharmacological effects in several biological systems. These polysaccharides include sulfated fucan (as fucoidan) and fucosylated chondroitin sulfate. The development of these polysaccharides as new drugs involves several important steps, among them, demonstration of the effectiveness of these compounds after oral administration. The oral route is the more practical, comfortable and preferred by patients for long-term treatments. In the past 20 years, reports of various pharmacological effects of these polysaccharides orally administered in several animal experimental models and some trials in humans have sparked the possibility for the development of drugs based on sulfated polysaccharides and/or the use of these marine organisms as functional food. This review focuses on the main pharmacological effects of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, with an emphasis on the antidislipidemic, immunomodulatory, antitumor, hypoglycemic and hemostatic effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycomics)
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