Special Issue "Marine Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Agents 2021"

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (16 December 2021) | Viewed by 11029

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Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Donatella Degl'Innocenti
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Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sperimentali e Cliniche “Mario Serio”, Università degli Studi di Firenze, viale Morgagni 50, 50134 Firenze, Italy
Interests: bioactive natural products; inflammation; oxidative stress; polyphenols; cell migration; autophagy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Marzia Vasarri
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sperimentali e Cliniche “Mario Serio”, Università degli Studi di Firenze, viale Morgagni 50, 50134 Firenze, Italy
Interests: bioactive natural products; inflammation; oxidative stress; polyphenols; cell migration; autophagy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Inflammation is a normal defense process involving the innate and adaptive immune systems occurring in response to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or toxic compounds. The inflammatory cascade includes the activation of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate the levels of proinflammatory mediators in resident tissue cells and recruited inflammatory cells. In addition, inflammatory cells are known to release several ROS at the site of inflammation, leading to uncontrolled oxidative stress. On the other hand, high levels of ROS/RNS can initiate an intracellular signaling cascade that increases proinflammatory gene expression. Oxidative stress and inflammation are thus two closely related pathophysiological processes, each of which can be induced by the other.

The impact of inflammation and related oxidative stress is currently a major issue in human health. Numerous chronic diseases and disorders may be profoundly linked to the interaction between oxidative stress and inflammation. Therapeutic treatments to modulate oxidative stress and/or inflammation can preserve healthy conditions or prevent chronic disease progression.

In recent decades, the use of natural products with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities has become increasingly widespread. In this regard, the diversity of the chemical structures of secondary metabolites of marine origin has long been the goal of research for the development of new pharmacological products beneficial to humans.

In this Special Issue, we aim to collect in vitro and/or in vivo experimental investigations that highlight the roles of bioactive compounds of marine origin as modulators of inflammation and/or oxidative stress.

Work describing the mechanisms of action and molecular interactions of compounds isolated from marine organisms is particularly encouraged. Additionally, comprehensive review articles summarizing the knowledge on marine anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant agents supporting human health will also be considered.

Prof. Dr. Donatella Degl'Innocenti
Dr. Marzia Vasarri
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • marine biomolecules
  • inflammation
  • inflammation-related disease
  • proinflammatory cytokines
  • antioxidant agents
  • oxidative stress
  • systemic oxidative stress
  • ROS
  • macrophages
  • T cells
  • neutrophils

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Agents from the Sea: A Molecular Treasure for New Potential Drugs
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(2), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/md20020132 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 722
Abstract
Nowadays, natural compounds are widely used worldwide for the treatment of human diseases and health disorders [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Agents 2021)
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Research

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Article
First Report of OvoA Gene in Marine Arthropods: A New Candidate Stress Biomarker in Copepods
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(11), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19110647 - 20 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 753
Abstract
Ovothiol is one of the most powerful antioxidants acting in marine organisms as a defense against oxidative stress during development and in response to environmental cues. The gene involved in the ovothiol biosynthesis, OvoA, is found in almost all metazoans, but open questions [...] Read more.
Ovothiol is one of the most powerful antioxidants acting in marine organisms as a defense against oxidative stress during development and in response to environmental cues. The gene involved in the ovothiol biosynthesis, OvoA, is found in almost all metazoans, but open questions existed on its presence among arthropods. Here, using an in silico workflow, we report a single OvoA gene in marine arthropods including copepods, decapods, and amphipods. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that OvoA from marine arthropods separated from the other marine phyla (e.g., Porifera, Mollusca) and divided into two separate branches, suggesting a possible divergence through evolution. In the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, we suggest that OvoA has a defense role in oxidative stress as shown by its high expression in response to a toxic diet and during the copepodite stage, a developmental stage that includes significant morphological changes. Overall, the results of our study open possibilities for the use of OvoA as a biomarker of stress in copepods and possibly also for other marine holozooplankters. The finding of OvoA in copepods is also promising for the drug discovery field, suggesting the possibility of using copepods as a new source of bioactive compounds to be tested in the marine biotechnological sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Agents 2021)
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Article
Oyster-Derived Tyr-Ala (YA) Peptide Prevents Lipopolysaccharide/D-Galactosamine-Induced Acute Liver Failure by Suppressing Inflammatory, Apoptotic, Ferroptotic, and Pyroptotic Signals
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(11), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19110614 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1121
Abstract
Models created by the intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-galactosamine (D-GalN) have been widely used to study the pathogenesis of human acute liver failure (ALF) and drug development. Our previous study reported that oyster (Crassostrea gigas) hydrolysate (OH) had a hepatoprotective effect [...] Read more.
Models created by the intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-galactosamine (D-GalN) have been widely used to study the pathogenesis of human acute liver failure (ALF) and drug development. Our previous study reported that oyster (Crassostrea gigas) hydrolysate (OH) had a hepatoprotective effect in LPS/D-GalN-injected mice. This study was performed to identify the hepatoprotective effect of the tyrosine-alanine (YA) peptide, the main component of OH, in a LPS/D-GalN-injected ALF mice model. We analyzed the effect of YA on previously known mechanisms of hepatocellular injury in the model. LPS/D-GalN-injected mice showed inflammatory, apoptotic, ferroptotic, and pyroptotic liver injury. The pre-administration of YA (10 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg) significantly reduced the liver damage factors. The hepatoprotective effect of YA was higher in the 50 mg/kg YA pre-administered group than in the 10 mg/kg YA pre-administered group. These results showed that YA had a hepatoprotective effect by reducing inflammation, apoptosis, ferroptosis, and pyroptosis in the LPS/D-GalN-injected ALF mouse model. We suggest that YA can be used as a functional peptide for the prevention of acute liver injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Agents 2021)
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Article
Cytoprotective Peptides from Blue Mussel Protein Hydrolysates: Identification and Mechanism Investigation in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells Injury
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(11), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19110609 - 27 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 828
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease represents a leading cause of mortality and is often characterized by the emergence of endothelial dysfunction (ED), a physiologic condition that takes place in the early progress of atherosclerosis. In this study, two cytoprotective peptides derived from blue mussel chymotrypsin hydrolysates [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease represents a leading cause of mortality and is often characterized by the emergence of endothelial dysfunction (ED), a physiologic condition that takes place in the early progress of atherosclerosis. In this study, two cytoprotective peptides derived from blue mussel chymotrypsin hydrolysates with the sequence of EPTF and FTVN were purified and identified. Molecular mechanisms underlying the cytoprotective effects against oxidative stress which lead to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) injury were investigated. The results showed that pretreatment of EPTF, FTVN and their combination (1:1) in 0.1 mg/mL significantly reduced HUVEC death due to H2O2 exposure. The cytoprotective mechanism of these peptides involves an improvement in the cellular antioxidant defense system, as indicated by the suppression of the intracellular ROS generation through upregulation of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1. In addition, H2O2 exposure triggers HUVEC damage through the apoptosis process, as evidenced by increased cytochrome C release, Bax protein expression, and the elevated amount of activated caspase-3, however in HUVEC pretreated with peptides and their combination, the presence of those apoptotic stimuli was significantly decreased. Each peptide showed similar cytoprotective effect but no synergistic effect. Taken together, these peptides may be especially important in protecting against oxidative stress-mediated ED. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Agents 2021)
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Article
C-phycoerythrin from Phormidium persicinum Prevents Acute Kidney Injury by Attenuating Oxidative and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(11), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19110589 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 819
Abstract
C-phycoerythrin (C-PE) is a phycobiliprotein that prevents oxidative stress and cell damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether C-PE also counteracts endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as a mechanism contributing to its nephroprotective activity. After C-PE was purified from Phormidium persicinum [...] Read more.
C-phycoerythrin (C-PE) is a phycobiliprotein that prevents oxidative stress and cell damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether C-PE also counteracts endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as a mechanism contributing to its nephroprotective activity. After C-PE was purified from Phormidium persicinum by using size exclusion chromatography, it was characterized by spectrometry and fluorometry. A mouse model of HgCl2-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) was used to assess the effect of C-PE treatment (at 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg of body weight) on oxidative stress, the redox environment, and renal damage. ER stress was examined with the same model and C-PE treatment at 100 mg/kg. C-PE diminished oxidative stress and cell damage in a dose-dependent manner by impeding the decrease in expression of nephrin and podocin normally caused by mercury intoxication. It reduced ER stress by preventing the activation of the inositol-requiring enzyme-1α (IRE1α) pathway and avoiding caspase-mediated cell death, while leaving the expression of protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK) and activating transcription factor 6α (ATF6α) pathways unmodified. Hence, C-PE exhibited a nephroprotective effect on HgCl2-induced AKI by reducing oxidative stress and ER stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Agents 2021)
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Article
The Potential Protective Effect and Possible Mechanism of Peptides from Oyster (Crassostrea hongkongensis) Hydrolysate on Triptolide-Induced Testis Injury in Male Mice
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19100566 - 09 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1024
Abstract
Peptides from oyster hydrolysate (OPs) have a variety of biological activities. However, its protective effect and exact mechanism on testicular injury remain poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of OPs on triptolide (TP)-induced testis damage and spermatogenesis dysfunction and [...] Read more.
Peptides from oyster hydrolysate (OPs) have a variety of biological activities. However, its protective effect and exact mechanism on testicular injury remain poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of OPs on triptolide (TP)-induced testis damage and spermatogenesis dysfunction and investigate its underlying mechanism. In this work, the TP-induced testis injury model was created while OPs were gavaged in mice for 4 weeks. The results showed that OPs significantly improved the sperm count and motility of mice, and alleviated the seminiferous tubule injury. Further study showed that OPs decreased malonaldehyde (MDA) level and increased antioxidant enzyme (SOD and GPH-Px) activities, attenuating oxidative stress and thereby reducing the number of apoptotic cells in the testis. In addition, OPs improved the activities of enzymes (LDH, ALP and ACP) related to energy metabolism in the testis and restored the serum hormone level of mice to normal. Furthermore, OPs promoted the expression of Nrf2 protein, and then increased the expression of antioxidant enzyme regulatory protein (HO-1 and NQO1) in the testis. OPs inhibited JNK phosphorylation and Bcl-2/Bax-mediated apoptosis. In conclusion, OPs have a protective effect on testicular injury and spermatogenesis disorders caused by TP, suggesting the potential protection of OPs on male reproduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Agents 2021)
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Article
Protective Effects of Ulva lactuca Polysaccharide Extract on Oxidative Stress and Kidney Injury Induced by D-Galactose in Mice
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19100539 - 25 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 835
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the key factors that cause many diseases in the human body. Polysaccharides from seaweed have been shown to have significant antioxidant activity both in vivo and in vitro. The ameliorative effect of Ulva lactuca polysaccharide extract (UPE) on [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the key factors that cause many diseases in the human body. Polysaccharides from seaweed have been shown to have significant antioxidant activity both in vivo and in vitro. The ameliorative effect of Ulva lactuca polysaccharide extract (UPE) on renal injury induced by oxidative stress was analyzed. As shown by hematoxylin–eosin staining results, UPE can significantly improve the kidney injury induced by D-galactose (D-gal). Additionally, the protective mechanism of UPE on the kidney was explored. The results showed that UPE could decrease the levels of serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum cystatin C (Cys-C), lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and DNA oxidative damage (8-OHdG) and improve kidney glutathione content. Moreover, UPE significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and total antioxidant activity in mice. UPE also decreased the levels of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. Further investigation into the expression of apoptotic protein caspase-3 showed that UPE decreased the expression of apoptotic protein caspase-3. These results indicate that UPE has a potential therapeutic effect on renal injury caused by oxidative stress, providing a new theoretical basis for the treatment of oxidative damage diseases in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Agents 2021)
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Article
Astaxanthin Provides Antioxidant Protection in LPS-Induced Dendritic Cells for Inflammatory Control
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19100534 - 23 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 947
Abstract
Astaxanthin, originating from marine organisms, is a natural bioactive compound with powerful antioxidant activity. Here, we evaluated the antioxidant ability of astaxanthin on dendritic cells (DCs), a key target of immune regulation, for inflammatory control in a sepsis model. Our results showed that [...] Read more.
Astaxanthin, originating from marine organisms, is a natural bioactive compound with powerful antioxidant activity. Here, we evaluated the antioxidant ability of astaxanthin on dendritic cells (DCs), a key target of immune regulation, for inflammatory control in a sepsis model. Our results showed that astaxanthin suppressed nitric oxide (NO) production, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and lipid peroxidation activities in LPS-induced DCs and LPS-challenged mice. Moreover, the reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and the GSH/GSSG ratio were increased, suggesting that astaxanthin elevated the level of cellular reductive status. Meanwhile, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were significantly upregulated. Astaxanthin also inhibited the LPS-induced secretions of IL-1β, IL-17, and TGF-β cytokines. Finally, we found that the expressions of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were significantly upregulated by astaxanthin in LPS-induced DCs, suggesting that the HO-1/Nrf2 pathway plays a significant role in the suppression of oxidative stress. These results suggested that astaxanthin possesses strong antioxidant characteristics in DC-related inflammatory responses, which is expected to have potential as a method of sepsis treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Agents 2021)
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Article
Astaxanthin Protects Dendritic Cells from Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Immune Dysfunction
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(6), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19060346 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1035
Abstract
Astaxanthin, originating from seafood, is a naturally occurring red carotenoid pigment. Previous studies have focused on its antioxidant properties; however, whether astaxanthin possesses a desired anti-inflammatory characteristic to regulate the dendritic cells (DCs) for sepsis therapy remains unknown. Here, we explored the effects [...] Read more.
Astaxanthin, originating from seafood, is a naturally occurring red carotenoid pigment. Previous studies have focused on its antioxidant properties; however, whether astaxanthin possesses a desired anti-inflammatory characteristic to regulate the dendritic cells (DCs) for sepsis therapy remains unknown. Here, we explored the effects of astaxanthin on the immune functions of murine DCs. Our results showed that astaxanthin reduced the expressions of LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10) and phenotypic markers (MHCII, CD40, CD80, and CD86) by DCs. Moreover, astaxanthin promoted the endocytosis levels in LPS-treated DCs, and hindered the LPS-induced migration of DCs via downregulating CCR7 expression, and then abrogated allogeneic T cell proliferation. Furthermore, we found that astaxanthin inhibited the immune dysfunction of DCs induced by LPS via the activation of the HO-1/Nrf2 axis. Finally, astaxanthin with oral administration remarkably enhanced the survival rate of LPS-challenged mice. These data showed a new approach of astaxanthin for potential sepsis treatment through avoiding the immune dysfunction of DCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Agents 2021)
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Article
A Comparative In Vitro Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Tisochrysis lutea Extract and Fucoxanthin
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(6), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19060334 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1041
Abstract
In this study, we compared the effects of a Tisochrysis lutea (T. lutea) F&M-M36 methanolic extract with those of fucoxanthin (FX) at equivalent concentration, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The T. lutea F&M-M36 methanolic extract contained 4.7 mg of FX and [...] Read more.
In this study, we compared the effects of a Tisochrysis lutea (T. lutea) F&M-M36 methanolic extract with those of fucoxanthin (FX) at equivalent concentration, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The T. lutea F&M-M36 methanolic extract contained 4.7 mg of FX and 6.22 mg of gallic acid equivalents of phenols per gram. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of simple phenolic acid derivatives. The T. lutea F&M-M36 extract exhibited a potent and concentration-dependent inhibitory activity against COX-2 dependent PGE2 production compared to FX alone. Compared to LPS, T. lutea F&M-M36 extract and FX reduced the expression of IL-6 and of Arg1 and enhanced that of IL-10 and of HO-1; T. lutea F&M-M36 extract also significantly abated the expression of NLRP3, enhanced mir-223 expression and reduced that of mir-146b, compared to LPS (p < 0.05). These findings indicate that T. lutea F&M-M36 methanolic extract has a peculiar anti-inflammatory activity against COX-2/PGE2 and NLRP3/mir-223 that might be attributable to the known anti-inflammatory effects of simple phenolic compounds found in the extract that may synergize with FX. Our data suggest that T. lutea F&M-M36 may serve as a source of anti-inflammatory compounds to be further evaluated in in vivo models of inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Agents 2021)
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Review

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Review
Exploitation of Marine-Derived Robust Biological Molecules to Manage Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(4), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19040196 - 30 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1052
Abstract
Naturally occurring biological entities with extractable and tunable structural and functional characteristics, along with therapeutic attributes, are of supreme interest for strengthening the twenty-first-century biomedical settings. Irrespective of ongoing technological and clinical advancement, traditional medicinal practices to address and manage inflammatory bowel disease [...] Read more.
Naturally occurring biological entities with extractable and tunable structural and functional characteristics, along with therapeutic attributes, are of supreme interest for strengthening the twenty-first-century biomedical settings. Irrespective of ongoing technological and clinical advancement, traditional medicinal practices to address and manage inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are inefficient and the effect of the administered therapeutic cues is limited. The reasonable immune response or invasion should also be circumvented for successful clinical translation of engineered cues as highly efficient and robust bioactive entities. In this context, research is underway worldwide, and researchers have redirected or regained their interests in valorizing the naturally occurring biological entities/resources, for example, algal biome so-called “treasure of untouched or underexploited sources”. Algal biome from the marine environment is an immense source of excellence that has also been demonstrated as a source of bioactive compounds with unique chemical, structural, and functional features. Moreover, the molecular modeling and synthesis of new drugs based on marine-derived therapeutic and biological cues can show greater efficacy and specificity for the therapeutics. Herein, an effort has been made to cover the existing literature gap on the exploitation of naturally occurring biological entities/resources to address and efficiently manage IBD. Following a brief background study, a focus was given to design characteristics, performance evaluation of engineered cues, and point-of-care IBD therapeutics of diverse bioactive compounds from the algal biome. Noteworthy potentialities of marine-derived biologically active compounds have also been spotlighted to underlying the impact role of bio-active elements with the related pathways. The current review is also focused on the applied standpoint and clinical translation of marine-derived bioactive compounds. Furthermore, a detailed overview of clinical applications and future perspectives are also given in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Agents 2021)
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