Bioactive Molecules from Extreme Environments III

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397). This special issue belongs to the section "Marine-Derived Ingredients for Drugs, Cosmeceuticals and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 7498

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Institute of Biosciences and BioResources (IBBR), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Via Pietro Castellino 111, I-80131 Naples, Italy
Interests: antarctic and arctic marine environments; bacteria; fish; sponges; marine natural products; marine peptides/proteins; protein structure/function; hemoproteins; marine antioxidants; marine anti-UV; functional ingredients; cosmeceuticals; PUFA
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In consideration of the success of the Special Issue series on "Bioactive Molecules from Extreme Environments” and the relevant interest in the topic, we are pleased to announce the third version of this Special Issue.

The third edition of the Special Issue “Bioactive Molecules from Extreme Environments-III” aims to collect papers with up-to-date findings regarding bioactive molecules and enzymes isolated from extreme environments; these papers will be used in biotechnological discovery pipelines in an effort to encourage further research on these extreme habitats.

Extreme environments—i.e., polar and hot regions, deep sea, hydrothermal vents, marine areas of high pressure or high salinity—experience conditions close to the limit of life. In these marine ecosystems, organisms have developed a huge variety of strategies to cope with such harsh conditions, such as the production of bioactive molecules that are potentially valuable for pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmeceutical sectors. These molecules are diverse in structure and possess a broad spectrum of activities that make them an attractive molecular basis for drug design and biotechnological applications.

As Guest Editor, I encourage the submission of research papers and reviews focused on bioactive compounds isolated from organisms that inhabit marine habitats (cold/deep sea, marine hydrothermal vents and areas of high pressure, high salinity or high UV radiation and all other marine environments that are considered extreme), thus increasing our knowledge of biological resources in terms of (i) biodiversity, (ii) bioprospecting and (iii) molecular and enzymatic mechanisms displayed by novel molecules to be used in biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications.

Dr. Daniela Giordano
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • marine natural products
  • bioactive molecules
  • metabolites
  • anti-UV molecules
  • enzymes
  • peptides
  • extreme environments
  • polar regions
  • deep sea
  • hydrothermal vents
  • UV radiation

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Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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23 pages, 3595 KiB  
Article
Improving Bioprocess Conditions for the Production of Prodigiosin Using a Marine Serratia rubidaea Strain
by Ricardo F. S. Pereira and Carla C. C. R. de Carvalho
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(4), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22040142 - 23 Mar 2024
Viewed by 618
Abstract
The enormous potential attributed to prodigiosin regarding its applicability as a natural pigment and pharmaceutical agent justifies the development of sound bioprocesses for its production. Using a Serratia rubidaea strain isolated from a shallow-water hydrothermal vent, optimization of the growth medium composition was [...] Read more.
The enormous potential attributed to prodigiosin regarding its applicability as a natural pigment and pharmaceutical agent justifies the development of sound bioprocesses for its production. Using a Serratia rubidaea strain isolated from a shallow-water hydrothermal vent, optimization of the growth medium composition was carried out. After medium development, the bacterium temperature, light and oxygen needs were studied, as was growth inhibition by product concentration. The implemented changes led to a 13-fold increase in prodigiosin production in a shake flask, reaching 19.7 mg/L. The conditions allowing the highest bacterial cell growth and prodigiosin production were also tested with another marine strain: S. marcescens isolated from a tide rock pool was able to produce 15.8 mg/L of prodigiosin. The bioprocess with S. rubidaea was scaled up from 0.1 L shake flasks to 2 L bioreactors using the maintenance of the oxygen mass transfer coefficient (kLa) as the scale-up criterion. The implemented parameters in the bioreactor led to an 8-fold increase in product per biomass yield and to a final concentration of 293.1 mg/L of prodigiosin in 24 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Molecules from Extreme Environments III)
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12 pages, 2872 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Bioactive Nickel Nanoparticles Using Bacterial Strains from an Antarctic Consortium
by Joseph Amruthraj Nagoth, Maria Sindhura John, Kesava Priyan Ramasamy, Alessio Mancini, Marco Zannotti, Sara Piras, Rita Giovannetti, Lydia Rathnam, Cristina Miceli, Maria Chiara Biondini and Sandra Pucciarelli
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(2), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22020089 - 14 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Marine microorganisms have been demonstrated to be an important source for bioactive molecules. In this paper we report the synthesis of Ni nanoparticles (NiSNPs) used as reducing and capping agents for five bacterial strains isolated from an Antarctic marine consortium: Marinomonas sp. ef1, [...] Read more.
Marine microorganisms have been demonstrated to be an important source for bioactive molecules. In this paper we report the synthesis of Ni nanoparticles (NiSNPs) used as reducing and capping agents for five bacterial strains isolated from an Antarctic marine consortium: Marinomonas sp. ef1, Rhodococcus sp. ef1, Pseudomonas sp. ef1, Brevundimonas sp. ef1, and Bacillus sp. ef1. The NiSNPs were characterized by Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis. The maximum absorbances in the UV–Vis spectra were in the range of 374 nm to 422 nm, corresponding to the Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Nickel. DLS revealed NiSNPs with sizes between 40 and 45 nm. All NiSNPs were polycrystalline with a face-centered cubic lattice, as revealed by XRD analyses. The NiSNPs zeta potential values were highly negative. TEM analysis showed that the NiSNPs were either spherical or rod shaped, well segregated, and with a size between 20 and 50 nm. The FTIR spectra revealed peaks of amino acid and protein binding to the NiSNPs. Finally, all the NiSNPs possess significant antimicrobial activity, which may play an important role in the management of infectious diseases affecting human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Molecules from Extreme Environments III)
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16 pages, 1355 KiB  
Article
Bioprospection of the Antarctic Diatoms Craspedostauros ineffabilis IMA082A and Craspedostauros zucchelli IMA088A
by Riccardo Trentin, Emanuela Moschin, Luísa Custódio and Isabella Moro
Mar. Drugs 2024, 22(1), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/md22010035 - 06 Jan 2024
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Abstract
In extreme environments such as Antarctica, a diverse range of organisms, including diatoms, serve as essential reservoirs of distinctive bioactive compounds with significant implications in pharmaceutical, cosmeceutical, nutraceutical, and biotechnological fields. This is the case of the new species Craspedostauros ineffabilis IMA082A and [...] Read more.
In extreme environments such as Antarctica, a diverse range of organisms, including diatoms, serve as essential reservoirs of distinctive bioactive compounds with significant implications in pharmaceutical, cosmeceutical, nutraceutical, and biotechnological fields. This is the case of the new species Craspedostauros ineffabilis IMA082A and Craspedostauros zucchellii IMA088A Trentin, Moschin, Lopes, Custódio and Moro (Bacillariophyta) that are here explored for the first time for possible biotechnological applications. For this purpose, a bioprospection approach was applied by preparing organic extracts (acetone and methanol) from freeze-dried biomass followed by the evaluation of their in vitro antioxidant properties and inhibitory activities on enzymes related with Alzheimer’s disease (acetylcholinesterase: AChE, butyrylcholinesterase: BChE), Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, α–glucosidase, α–amylase), obesity (lipase) and hyperpigmentation (tyrosinase). Extracts were then profiled by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UPLC–HR–MS/MS), while the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles were established by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Our results highlighted strong copper chelating activity of the acetone extract from C. ineffabilis and moderate to high inhibitory activities on AChE, BChE, α–amylase and lipase for extracts from both species. The results of the chemical analysis indicated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and their derivatives as the possible compounds responsible for the observed activities. The FAME profile showed saturated fatty acids (SFA) as the main group and methyl palmitoleate (C16:1) as the predominant FAME in both species. Overall, our results suggest both Antarctic strains as potential sources of interesting molecules with industrial applications. Further studies aiming to investigate unidentified metabolites and to maximize growth yield and natural compound production are required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Molecules from Extreme Environments III)
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Review

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31 pages, 2949 KiB  
Review
Marine versus Non-Marine Bacterial Exopolysaccharides and Their Skincare Applications
by Fanny Benhadda, Agata Zykwinska, Sylvia Colliec-Jouault, Corinne Sinquin, Bertrand Thollas, Anthony Courtois, Nicola Fuzzati, Alix Toribio and Christine Delbarre-Ladrat
Mar. Drugs 2023, 21(11), 582; https://doi.org/10.3390/md21110582 - 07 Nov 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3564
Abstract
Bacteria are well-known to synthesize high molecular weight polysaccharides excreted in extracellular domain, which constitute their protective microenvironment. Several bacterial exopolysaccharides (EPS) are commercially available for skincare applications in cosmetic products due to their unique structural features, conferring valuable biological and/or textural properties. [...] Read more.
Bacteria are well-known to synthesize high molecular weight polysaccharides excreted in extracellular domain, which constitute their protective microenvironment. Several bacterial exopolysaccharides (EPS) are commercially available for skincare applications in cosmetic products due to their unique structural features, conferring valuable biological and/or textural properties. This review aims to give an overview of bacterial EPS, an important group of macromolecules used in cosmetics as actives and functional ingredients. For this purpose, the main chemical characteristics of EPS are firstly described, followed by the basics of the development of cosmetic ingredients. Then, a focus on EPS production, including upstream and downstream processes, is provided. The diversity of EPS used in the cosmetic industry, and more specifically of marine-derived EPS is highlighted. Marine bacteria isolated from extreme environments are known to produce EPS. However, their production processes are highly challenging due to high or low temperatures; yield must be improved to reach economically viable ingredients. The biological properties of marine-derived EPS are then reviewed, resulting in the highlight of the challenges in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Molecules from Extreme Environments III)
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