Mach. Learn. Knowl. Extr. 2020, 2(2), 56-77; https://doi.org/10.3390/make2020005 - 01 Apr 2020
Brain hemorrhage is a type of stroke which is caused by a ruptured artery, resulting in localized bleeding in or around the brain tissues. Among a variety of imaging tests, a computerized tomography (CT) scan of the brain enables the accurate detection and [...] Read more.
Brain hemorrhage is a type of stroke which is caused by a ruptured artery, resulting in localized bleeding in or around the brain tissues. Among a variety of imaging tests, a computerized tomography (CT) scan of the brain enables the accurate detection and diagnosis of a brain hemorrhage. In this work, we developed a practical approach to detect the existence and type of brain hemorrhage in a CT scan image of the brain, called Accurate Identification of Brain Hemorrhage, abbreviated as AIBH. The steps of the proposed method consist of image preprocessing, image segmentation, feature extraction, feature selection, and design of an advanced classification framework. The image preprocessing and segmentation steps involve removing the skull region from the image and finding out the region of interest (ROI) using Otsu’s method, respectively. Subsequently, feature extraction includes the collection of a comprehensive set of features from the ROI, such as the size of the ROI, centroid of the ROI, perimeter of the ROI, the distance between the ROI and the skull, and more. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm (GA)-based feature selection algorithm is utilized to select relevant features for improved performance. These features are then used to train the stacking-based machine learning framework to predict different types of a brain hemorrhage. Finally, the evaluation results indicate that the proposed predictor achieves a 10-fold cross-validation (CV) accuracy (ACC), precision (PR), Recall, F1-score, and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 99.5%, 99%, 98.9%, 0.989, and 0.986, respectively, on the benchmark CT scan dataset. While comparing AIBH with the existing state-of-the-art classification method of the brain hemorrhage type, AIBH provides an improvement of 7.03%, 7.27%, and 7.38% based on PR, Recall, and F1-score, respectively. Therefore, the proposed approach considerably outperforms the existing brain hemorrhage classification approach and can be useful for the effective prediction of brain hemorrhage types from CT scan images (The code and data can be found here: http://cs.uno.edu/~tamjid/Software/AIBH/code_data.zip). Full article