Binocular Vision Parameters and Dysfunctions: Types, Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatments

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Research".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 July 2024 | Viewed by 3439

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Applied Physics, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
Interests: retina; choroid; OCT; OCTA; diabetic retinopathy; neurodegeneration diseases; binocular vision; eye movements; aberrometry; accommodation; eye-tracking

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Guest Editor
Department of Applied Physics, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
Interests: retina; choroid; OCT; OCTA; daylight; circadian light; spectral power distribution; binocular vision; eye movements; aberrometry; accommodation; eye-tracking

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Non-strabismic binocular vision dysfunctions are ocular conditions where both eyes are unable to work properly in a coordinated and efficient way. These dysfunctions occur due to unknown causes, traumatic brain injuries, medications or environmental factors, among others, and they manifest as headaches, blurred vision at different distances, problems with reading, diplopia, asthenopia, etc. All this generates difficulties in carrying out daily activities and diminishes the quality of life of the people who suffer from them. Today, technological advances in development are helping to objectify the measurements of different optometric parameters evaluated in visual examination, but more research is still needed to standardize some parameters and unify the diagnostic criteria of these conditions to carry out the most appropriate therapeutic approach in each case, paying special attention to training and visual rehabilitation.

This Special Issue invites the submission of articles or reviews focused on the characterization of normal binocular clinical parameters or studies where these parameters are altered by oculomotor (fixations, saccadic and tracking), vergence and/or accommodative dysfunctions, analyzing the results and establishing different types of therapeutic approaches.

Dr. Elvira Orduna-Hospital
Dr. Ana Sanchez-Cano
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • binocular vision
  • binocular dysfunctions
  • eye movements
  • fixations
  • saccadics
  • aberrometry
  • accommodation
  • eye-tracking
  • eye coordination
  • accommodative dysfunctions
  • vergence dysfunctions
  • oculomotor dysfunctions
  • visual rehabilitation
  • diplopia

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 2782 KiB  
Article
Refining Clinical Quantification of Depth of Suppression in Amblyopia through Synoptophore Measurement
by Maureen D. Plaumann, Krista L. Roberts, Wei Wei, Chao Han and Teng Leng Ooi
Life 2023, 13(9), 1900; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13091900 - 12 Sep 2023
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Abstract
Background: Amblyopia is associated with unbalanced suppression between the two eyes. Existing clinical measures of suppression, such as the Worth 4 Dot test, provide qualitative information about suppression but cannot precisely quantify it. The Synoptophore, a well-established instrument in binocular vision clinics, has [...] Read more.
Background: Amblyopia is associated with unbalanced suppression between the two eyes. Existing clinical measures of suppression, such as the Worth 4 Dot test, provide qualitative information about suppression but cannot precisely quantify it. The Synoptophore, a well-established instrument in binocular vision clinics, has historically been used to gauge suppression qualitatively as well but has the capability to quantify suppression. We extended the capability of the Synoptophore through the development of a systematic protocol of illumination manipulation to quantify suppression in amblyopia. Methods: Twenty-six previously treated adult amblyopes underwent our protocol on the Synoptophore to measure the illumination balance needed to obtain fusion responses. Separately, these same amblyopes were tested with Worth 4 Dot as it is classically performed in the United States, utilizing different test distances and room illuminations to qualify the suppression response. Results: Smaller, more central targets revealed larger magnitudes of suppression for both the Synoptophore and Worth 4 Dot tests (Synoptophore: χ25,26 = 25.538, p < 0.001; Worth 4 Dot: χ23,26 = 39.020, p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between the two tests for depth of suppression measurements (rΤ > 0.345, p < 0.036), with more sensitivity measured by the Synoptophore, as suppression could be graded on a quantitative scale. Strabismic amblyopes demonstrated more suppression than non-strabismic amblyopes (z > 2.410, p < 0.016). Additionally, depth of suppression was correlated with interocular difference in both visual acuity (rΤ = 0.604, p < 0.001) and stereoacuity (rΤ = 0.488, p = 0.001). Conclusions: We extended the utility of the Synoptophore by measuring its illuminance outputs and developing a suppression testing protocol that compared favorably with Worth 4 Dot (clinic standard) while improving upon the latter through more sensitive quantification of suppression. Full article
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Review

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13 pages, 5467 KiB  
Review
Bilateral Angle Recession and Chronic Post-Traumatic Glaucoma: A Review of the Literature and a Case Report
by Valeria Iannucci, Priscilla Manni, Ludovico Alisi, Giulia Mecarelli, Alessandro Lambiase and Alice Bruscolini
Life 2023, 13(9), 1814; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13091814 - 27 Aug 2023
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Abstract
Ocular trauma affects millions of people worldwide and is a leading cause of secondary glaucoma. Angle recession is the main cause of post-traumatic glaucoma after blunt eye trauma, and it is usually unilateral. The aim of this paper is to investigate the possible [...] Read more.
Ocular trauma affects millions of people worldwide and is a leading cause of secondary glaucoma. Angle recession is the main cause of post-traumatic glaucoma after blunt eye trauma, and it is usually unilateral. The aim of this paper is to investigate the possible causes of angle recession with a bilateral presentation. Airbag activation during traffic accidents is a likely cause to be ruled out, along with repeated head or eye trauma, due to contact sports or a history of physical abuse. These aspects can aid in early detection, appropriate management, and improved outcomes for patients with ocular trauma. Finally, we report the case of a 75-year-old Caucasian man who developed a bilateral angle recession after an airbag impact, with advanced glaucoma in the right eye and ocular hypertension in the left eye. To our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature of chronic post-traumatic glaucoma probably caused by an airbag. Full article
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