Special Issue "Sensor and Actuator Networks: Feature Papers"

A special issue of Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks (ISSN 2224-2708).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal
Website
Guest Editor
Ohio Board of Regents Distinguished Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computing Systems, 819D Old Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0030, USA
Interests: bio-medical applications of wireless sensor networks; secured communication in WSN, IoT framework; vehicular systems
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This is a Special Issue of high quality papers (original research articles or comprehensive review papers) in open access format by Editorial Board members and researchers invited by the Editorial Board members and the Editorial Office. Papers will be published, free of charge, after peer review. The scope of “Sensor and Actuator Networks” includes, but is not limited to, the following items:

  • System architecture, operating systems, and network hardware for sensor and actuator networks;
  • sensor tasking and self-management;
  • network services for time, localization, and power management;
  • communication and network protocols;
  • data processing, data storage, and data management within sensor and actuator networks;
  • programming models and middleware for sensor/actuator networks;
  • simulation of sensor/actuator networks;
  • experimental facilities and test beds for sensor/actuator networks;
  • global sensor networks;
  • embedded systems;
  • nanosensor networks;
  • applications in medical science, environment monitoring, manufacturing, automation and precision agriculture, etc.;
  • security and privacy.

Prof. Dr. Dharma P. Agrawal
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Non-Invasive Risk Stratification of Hypertension: A Systematic Comparison of Machine Learning Algorithms
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2020, 9(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan9030034 - 21 Jul 2020
Abstract
One of the most important physiological parameters of the cardiovascular circulatory system is Blood Pressure. Several diseases are related to long-term abnormal blood pressure, i.e., hypertension; therefore, the early detection and assessment of this condition are crucial. The identification of hypertension, and, even [...] Read more.
One of the most important physiological parameters of the cardiovascular circulatory system is Blood Pressure. Several diseases are related to long-term abnormal blood pressure, i.e., hypertension; therefore, the early detection and assessment of this condition are crucial. The identification of hypertension, and, even more the evaluation of its risk stratification, by using wearable monitoring devices are now more realistic thanks to the advancements in Internet of Things, the improvements of digital sensors that are becoming more and more miniaturized, and the development of new signal processing and machine learning algorithms. In this scenario, a suitable biomedical signal is represented by the PhotoPlethysmoGraphy (PPG) signal. It can be acquired by using a simple, cheap, and wearable device, and can be used to evaluate several aspects of the cardiovascular system, e.g., the detection of abnormal heart rate, respiration rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and so on. In this paper, we take into account the Cuff-Less Blood Pressure Estimation Data Set that contains, among others, PPG signals coming from a set of subjects, as well as the Blood Pressure values of the latter that is the hypertension level. Our aim is to investigate whether or not machine learning methods applied to these PPG signals can provide better results for the non-invasive classification and evaluation of subjects’ hypertension levels. To this aim, we have availed ourselves of a wide set of machine learning algorithms, based on different learning mechanisms, and have compared their results in terms of the effectiveness of the classification obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor and Actuator Networks: Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Use of Class B LoRaWAN for the Coordination of Distributed Interface Protection Systems in Smart Grids
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2020, 9(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan9010013 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The adoption of the distributed generation paradigm is introducing several changes in the design and operation of modern distribution networks. Modern grid codes are becoming more and more complex, and the adoption of smart protection systems is becoming mandatory. However, the adoption of [...] Read more.
The adoption of the distributed generation paradigm is introducing several changes in the design and operation of modern distribution networks. Modern grid codes are becoming more and more complex, and the adoption of smart protection systems is becoming mandatory. However, the adoption of newer and smarter units is only half of the story. Proper communication networks must be provided as well, and the overall costs may become critical. In this work, the adoption of the Long-Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) technology is suggested as a viable approach to implement the coordination of Interface Protection Systems. A proper communication architecture based on the LoRaWAN Class B technology was proposed and evaluated in order to assess its feasibility for the considered application. A scalability analysis was carried out, by computing the number of devices that can be handled by a single LoRaWAN Gateway (GW) and the maximum expected time of response between a triggering event and the arrival of the related coordination command. The results of the study showed that up to 312 devices can be managed by a single GW, by assuring a maximum response time of 22.95 s. A faster maximum response time of 6.2 s is also possible by reducing the number of managed devices to 12. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor and Actuator Networks: Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
Improving Quality-Of-Service in LoRa Low-Power Wide-Area Networks through Optimized Radio Resource Management
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2020, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan9010010 - 08 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) enable a growing number of Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications with large geographical coverage, low bit-rate, and long lifetime requirements. LoRa (Long Range) is a well-known LPWAN technology that uses a proprietary Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) physical layer, while [...] Read more.
Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) enable a growing number of Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications with large geographical coverage, low bit-rate, and long lifetime requirements. LoRa (Long Range) is a well-known LPWAN technology that uses a proprietary Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) physical layer, while the upper layers are defined by an open standard—LoRaWAN. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective method to improve the Quality-of-Service (QoS) of LoRaWAN networks by fine-tuning specific radio parameters. Through a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problem formulation, we find optimal settings for the Spreading Factor (SF) and Carrier Frequency (CF) radio parameters, considering the network traffic specifications as a whole, to improve the Data Extraction Rate (DER) and to reduce the packet collision rate and the energy consumption in LoRa networks. The effectiveness of the optimization procedure is demonstrated by simulations, using LoRaSim for different network scales. In relation to the traditional LoRa radio parameter assignment policies, our solution leads to an average increase of 6% in DER, and a number of collisions 13 times smaller. In comparison to networks with dynamic radio parameter assignment policies, there is an increase of 5%, 2.8%, and 2% of DER, and a number of collisions 11, 7.8 and 2.5 times smaller than equal-distribution, Tiurlikova’s (SOTA), and random distribution, respectively. Regarding the network energy consumption metric, the proposed optimization obtained an average consumption similar to Tiurlikova’s, and 2.8 times lower than the equal-distribution and random dynamic allocation policies. Furthermore, we approach the practical aspects of how to implement and integrate the optimization mechanism proposed in LoRa, guaranteeing backward compatibility with the standard protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor and Actuator Networks: Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Suitability of Current Industrial Standards in Designing Control Applications for Internet of Things Healthcare Sensor Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2019, 8(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan8040054 - 28 Nov 2019
Abstract
Internet of Things (IoT) holds great promises for industrial, commercial, and consumer applications. While wireless techniques have matured with time and have gained the users’ confidence in relaying data containing qualitative as well as quantitative information, cynicism still exists on trusting them for [...] Read more.
Internet of Things (IoT) holds great promises for industrial, commercial, and consumer applications. While wireless techniques have matured with time and have gained the users’ confidence in relaying data containing qualitative as well as quantitative information, cynicism still exists on trusting them for applications involving control. The wireless protocols and techniques used for industrial control have proved their robustness. In this work we have attempted to test some aspects of feasibility on the use of wireless control involving such protocols for IoT healthcare sensor networks (IoT-HSNs). We conceptualized and simulated a 24-channel IoT-HSN model that includes biosensors as well as bioactuators. Currently, no protocol supporting control in such networks has been standardized. We tried to fit in the widely used WirelessHART (Highway Addressable Remote Transducer) industrial protocol for sensing as well as control in the model to test if it would work for a healthcare sensor network. We probed the performance of the model with respect to network parameters such as channels, bandwidth, Quality of Service (QoS) requirements, payload, transmission delays, and allowable errors. For the parameters considered, the results obtained from the model were encouraging, suggesting that WirelessHART fits the IoT-HSN control requirements according to this initial probe. The findings could provide useful insights for researchers working in the field of control in IoT-HSNs and for designers and manufacturers of IoT-HSN equipment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor and Actuator Networks: Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
Interference Alignment for Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: A Survey
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2019, 8(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan8040050 - 27 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Interference alignment (IA) is an innovative wireless transmission strategy that has shown to be a promising technique for achieving optimal capacity scaling of a multiuser interference channel at asymptotically high-signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Transmitters exploit the availability of multiple signaling dimensions in order to [...] Read more.
Interference alignment (IA) is an innovative wireless transmission strategy that has shown to be a promising technique for achieving optimal capacity scaling of a multiuser interference channel at asymptotically high-signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Transmitters exploit the availability of multiple signaling dimensions in order to align their mutual interference at the receivers. Most of the research has focused on developing algorithms for determining alignment solutions as well as proving interference alignment’s theoretical ability to achieve the maximum degrees of freedom in a wireless network. Cognitive radio, on the other hand, is a technique used to improve the utilization of the radio spectrum by opportunistically sensing and accessing unused licensed frequency spectrum, without causing harmful interference to the licensed users. With the increased deployment of wireless services, the possibility of detecting unused frequency spectrum becomes diminished. Thus, the concept of introducing interference alignment in cognitive radio has become a very attractive proposition. This paper provides a survey of the implementation of IA in cognitive radio under the main research paradigms, along with a summary and analysis of results under each system model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor and Actuator Networks: Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
Fusion of the Brooks–Iyengar Algorithm and Blockchain in Decentralization of the Data-Source
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2019, 8(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan8010017 - 06 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Information fusion has been a topic of immense interest owing to its applicability in various applications. This brings to the fore the need for a flexible and accurate fusion algorithm that can be versatile. The Brooks–Iyengar algorithm is one such fusion algorithm. It [...] Read more.
Information fusion has been a topic of immense interest owing to its applicability in various applications. This brings to the fore the need for a flexible and accurate fusion algorithm that can be versatile. The Brooks–Iyengar algorithm is one such fusion algorithm. It has since its inception found numerous applications that deal with the fusion of data from multiple sources. The uniqueness of the Brooks–Iyengar algorithm is the ease with which the data from multiple sensors in a local system can be fused and also reach consensus in a distributed system with the added capability of fault tolerance. Blockchain has found its use as a distributed ledger and has successfully supported and fueled many crypto-currencies over the years. Information fusion with regards to Blockchains is a topic of great research interest in the past couple of years. Since blockchain has no official node, the introduction of a decentralized network and a consensus algorithm is required in making the interactions and exchanges between multiple suppliers easier and thus leads to business being carried out without any hassles. In this paper, we attempt to understand and describe the deployment of multiple sensors to measure various aspects of the physical world. We discuss a novel technique of employing the Brooks–Iyengar algorithm in the design of the system that would decentralize the data source from the corresponding measurements and thus ensure the integrity of the transactions in the Blockchain. Finally, a theoretical analysis of the performance of the algorithm when used in a blockchain based decentralized environment is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor and Actuator Networks: Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
An Interdisciplinary Review of Smart Vehicular Traffic and Its Applications and Challenges
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2019, 8(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan8010013 - 14 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Sensors and intelligent applications enabling smart vehicular traffic create an opportunity for improving the welfare of people, from the viewpoints of efficiency, sustainability, and social inclusivity. Like the opportunities, challenges of such an endeavour are multifaceted, including the scalable collection and processing of [...] Read more.
Sensors and intelligent applications enabling smart vehicular traffic create an opportunity for improving the welfare of people, from the viewpoints of efficiency, sustainability, and social inclusivity. Like the opportunities, challenges of such an endeavour are multifaceted, including the scalable collection and processing of the hefty data volumes generated by sensors, and the coordinated operation between selfish agents. The purpose of this work is to survey recent literature with an emphasis on applications and a multidisciplinary eye, with the aim of stimulating discussion and reflection in the scientific communities. The principal application areas of smart traffic and smart mobility are discussed, synthesizing different perspectives. Many intriguing areas for future research exist besides those relative to connectivity, data fusion, and privacy. Some research challenges pertinent to sustainability, insurance, simulation and the handling of ambiguous information are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor and Actuator Networks: Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
Fusing Thermopile Infrared Sensor Data for Single Component Activity Recognition within a Smart Environment
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2019, 8(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan8010010 - 18 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
To provide accurate activity recognition within a smart environment, visible spectrum cameras can be used as data capture devices in solution applications. Privacy, however, is a significant concern with regards to monitoring in a smart environment, particularly with visible spectrum cameras. Their use, [...] Read more.
To provide accurate activity recognition within a smart environment, visible spectrum cameras can be used as data capture devices in solution applications. Privacy, however, is a significant concern with regards to monitoring in a smart environment, particularly with visible spectrum cameras. Their use, therefore, may not be ideal. The need for accurate activity recognition is still required and so an unobtrusive approach is addressed in this research highlighting the use of a thermopile infrared sensor as the sole means of data collection. Image frames of the monitored scene are acquired from a thermopile infrared sensor that only highlights sources of heat, for example, a person. The recorded frames feature no discernable characteristics of people; hence privacy concerns can successfully be alleviated. To demonstrate how thermopile infrared sensors can be used for this task, an experiment was conducted to capture almost 600 thermal frames of a person performing four single component activities. The person’s position within a room, along with the action being performed, is used to appropriately predict the activity. The results demonstrated that high accuracy levels, 91.47%, for activity recognition can be obtained using only thermopile infrared sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor and Actuator Networks: Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
How to Develop IoT Cloud e-Health Systems Based on FIWARE: A Lesson Learnt
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2019, 8(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan8010007 - 10 Jan 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Nowadays, the penetration of sensors and actuators in different application fields is revolutionizing all aspects of our daily life. One of the major sectors that is taking advantage of such cutting-edge cheap smart devices is healthcare. In this context, Remote Patient Monitoring (RPM) [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the penetration of sensors and actuators in different application fields is revolutionizing all aspects of our daily life. One of the major sectors that is taking advantage of such cutting-edge cheap smart devices is healthcare. In this context, Remote Patient Monitoring (RPM) at home represents a tempting opportunity for hospitals to reduce clinical costs and to improve the quality of life of both patients and their families. It allows patients to be monitored remotely by means networks of Internet of Things (IoT) medical devices equipped with sensors and actuators that collect healthcare data from patients and send them to a Cloud-based Hospital Information System (HIS) for processing. Up to now, many different proprietary software systems have been developed as stand-along expensive solutions, presenting interoperability, extensibility, and scalability issues. In recent years, the European Commission (EC) has promoted the wide adoption of FIWARE technology, launching 16 Industrial Accelerators focusing on different application fields. One of these, i.e., FICHe, is specialized in healthcare, providing the guidelines on how to develop eHealth systems. This paper focuses on how to compose new cutting-edge IoT and Cloud-based Cyber Physical Health Sytem (CPHS) services and applications interconnected with remote medical sensors and actuators using FIWARE technology in the context envisioned by FICHe. In particular, we discuss the design and development of an RPM system implemented through the collaboration between the Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) “Bonino Pulejo” (i.e., a clinical and research healthcare centre specialized in the treatment of neuro lesions), University of Messina, IBM Research, Telefónica, and the University of the Western Cape in South Africa. The description of our best practice provides a model and guidelines for the development of lightweight and low cost RPM services for rural and isolated areas, with the expectation of expanding healthcare to the developing world and in general allows us to outline how to deal with the real adoption of the FIWARE technology in an e-health project. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor and Actuator Networks: Feature Papers)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Activity Classification Feasibility Using Wearables: Considerations for Hip Fracture
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7040054 - 17 Dec 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Falls in the elderly are a common health issue that can involve severe injuries like hip fractures, requiring considerable medical attention, and subsequent care. Following surgery, physiotherapy is essential for strengthening muscles, mobilizing joints and fostering the return to physical activities. Ideally, physiotherapy [...] Read more.
Falls in the elderly are a common health issue that can involve severe injuries like hip fractures, requiring considerable medical attention, and subsequent care. Following surgery, physiotherapy is essential for strengthening muscles, mobilizing joints and fostering the return to physical activities. Ideally, physiotherapy programmes would benefit from active home-based monitoring of the elderly patients’ daily activities and exercises. This paper aims at providing a preliminary analysis addressing three key research questions. First, what are the key involved activities (at-hospital, home exercises, and activities of daily living) during the post-operative hip fracture rehabilitation process? Second, how can one monitor and identify a range of leg exercises accurately? Last, what is the most suitable sensor location that can categorize the majority of the physical activities thought to be important during the rehabilitation programme? During preliminary testing, it was noted that a standard deviation of the acceleration signal was suitable for classification of static activities like sitting, whereas classification of the ambulatory activities like walking, both the frequency content and related amplitude of the acceleration signal, plays a significant role. The research findings suggest that the ankle is an appropriate location for monitoring most of the leg movement physical activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor and Actuator Networks: Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
Networking of Multi-Robot Systems: Architectures and Requirements
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7040052 - 30 Nov 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
A large number of advancements have taken place in microprocessor-based systems leading to significantly more processing, memory, storage, sensing, actuating, recognition, controlling and communication capabilities. Robotics is one of the areas that have benefited a lot from these advancements. Many important and useful [...] Read more.
A large number of advancements have taken place in microprocessor-based systems leading to significantly more processing, memory, storage, sensing, actuating, recognition, controlling and communication capabilities. Robotics is one of the areas that have benefited a lot from these advancements. Many important and useful applications for single-robot and multi-robot systems (MRS) have emerged. Such applications include search and rescue, detection of forest fires, mining, construction, disaster management, and many more. MRS systems greatly enhance the capabilities and effectiveness of today’s robots. They extend the robotic system capabilities by increasing the ability to perform more complex tasks and allow performance of inherently distributed ones. In addition, they increase parallelism, enhance robustness, and improve system reliability. However, to perform their tasks in an effective manner, communication between the individual robots becomes an essential component. In this paper, we discuss the various types and architectures of MRS systems and focus on the networking issues, and services that are required to enable MRS systems to be more efficient in performing their roles in their respective applications. We also identify the similarities and differences between mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and MRS systems, analyze robot-to-robot (R2R) and robot-to-infrastructure (R2I) communication links, and identify the protocols that can be used at the various levels in the MRS hierarchy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor and Actuator Networks: Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Analysis of Adaptive Hierarchical Low-Power Long-Range Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2018, 7(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan7040051 - 27 Nov 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
A new phase of evolution of Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication has started where vertical Internet of Things (IoT) deployments dedicated to a single application domain gradually change to multi-purpose IoT infrastructures that service different applications across multiple industries. New networking technologies are being deployed [...] Read more.
A new phase of evolution of Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication has started where vertical Internet of Things (IoT) deployments dedicated to a single application domain gradually change to multi-purpose IoT infrastructures that service different applications across multiple industries. New networking technologies are being deployed operating over sub-GHz frequency bands that enable multi-tenant connectivity over long distances and increase network capacity by enforcing low transmission rates to increase network capacity. Such networking technologies allow cloud-based platforms to be connected with large numbers of IoT devices deployed several kilometres from the edges of the network. Despite the rapid uptake of Long-power Wide-area Networks (LPWANs), it remains unclear how to organize the wireless sensor network in a scaleable and adaptive way. This paper introduces a hierarchical communication scheme that utilizes the new capabilities of Long-Range Wireless Sensor Networking technologies by combining them with broadly used 802.11.4-based low-range low-power technologies. The design of the hierarchical scheme is presented in detail along with the technical details on the implementation in real-world hardware platforms. A platform-agnostic software firmware is produced that is evaluated in real-world large-scale testbeds. The performance of the networking scheme is evaluated through a series of experimental scenarios that generate environments with varying channel quality, failing nodes, and mobile nodes. The performance is evaluated in terms of the overall time required to organize the network and setup a hierarchy, the energy consumption and the overall lifetime of the network, as well as the ability to adapt to channel failures. The experimental analysis indicate that the combination of long-range and short-range networking technologies can lead to scalable solutions that can service concurrently multiple applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor and Actuator Networks: Feature Papers)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
IoT-Based Solid Waste Management Solutions: A Survey
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2019, 8(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan8010005 - 01 Jan 2019
Cited by 13
Abstract
With the increase of population density and the rural exodus to cities, urbanization is assuming extreme proportions and presents a tremendous urban problem related to waste generation. The increase of waste generation has been considered a significant challenge to large urban centers worldwide [...] Read more.
With the increase of population density and the rural exodus to cities, urbanization is assuming extreme proportions and presents a tremendous urban problem related to waste generation. The increase of waste generation has been considered a significant challenge to large urban centers worldwide and represents a critical issue for countries with accelerated population growth in cities. The Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud computing offer an automation possibility through cyberphysical systems that will change the way solid waste management is performed. Considering IoT requirements, a review analysis of waste management models available in the literature is performed in detail in this paper. Then, a deep review is undertaken of the related literature based on IoT infrastructure for efficient handling of waste generated in urban scenarios, focusing on the interaction among concessionaires and waste generators (citizens) from the perspective of a shorter collection time with reduced costs, as well as citizenship promotion. An IoT-based reference model is described, and a comparison analysis of the available solutions is presented, with the goal to highlight the most relevant approaches and identify open research issues on the topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor and Actuator Networks: Feature Papers)
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