Special Issue "Resilient Flood Defences"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Ocean Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 July 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Suzanne J.M.H. Hulscher
Website
Guest Editor
University of Twente
Interests: Roughness modelling; rhythmic features; morphodynamics; numerical modelling; idealised modelling
Dr. Jord J. Warmink
Website
Guest Editor
University of Twente
Interests: Flood risk; Uncertainty analysis; Numerical modelling; Wave overtopping; Flood defences
Dr. Ir Bas W. Borsje
Website
Guest Editor
University of Twente
Interests: biogeomorphology; building with nature; numerical modelling; fluid & sediment dynamics; nature-based flood protection

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Worldwide, hard structures are used as flood protection measures. These structures are static and do not respond to changing boundary conditions, such as sea level rise and increasing storminess. Moreover, the energy released during extreme events is hardly dissipated, resulting in enormous losses and damage. Therefore, innovative and sustainable solutions for flood defense stability, both technical and societal, are called upon. These measures allow for economic growth in coastal and deltaic regions, which are the world’s most valuable areas.

In this Special Issue “Resilient Flood Defenses” we invite authors to submit papers that focus on process-based understanding of flood defense systems, as well as the effectiveness of solutions for flood risk reduction. Especially, topics related to nature-based solutions, climate change effects, and related management solutions are encouraged.

Prof. Suzanne J.M.H. Hulscher
Dr. Jord J. Warmink
Dr. ir Bas W. Borsje
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Climate change
  • Nature-based solutions
  • Flood risk
  • Vegetation
  • Vegetated foreshores
  • Spatial adaption
  • Management
  • Living labs
  • Levee stability
  • Environmental modeling

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Computational Modelling of the Impacts of Saltmarsh Management Interventions on Hydrodynamics of a Small Macro-Tidal Estuary
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(5), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8050373 - 23 May 2020
Abstract
Saltmarshes are considered as natural coastal defences. However, owing to the large context dependency, there is much discussion over their effectiveness in providing coastal protection and the necessity of additional coastal defence interventions. The macro-tidal Taf Estuary in south-west Wales was chosen as [...] Read more.
Saltmarshes are considered as natural coastal defences. However, owing to the large context dependency, there is much discussion over their effectiveness in providing coastal protection and the necessity of additional coastal defence interventions. The macro-tidal Taf Estuary in south-west Wales was chosen as the case study in this paper to investigate the effects of anthropogenic coastal defence interventions such as construction of hard defences, managed realignment, and altering land use of the saltmarshes on the complex hydrodynamics of the estuary. A coupled flow–wave–vegetation model, developed using the Delft3D coastal modelling software, was used. The wave and current attenuation role of saltmarshes during two contrasting storm conditions was modelled, with and without saltmarsh management interventions. The study reveals that certain saltmarsh management interventions can have widespread impacts on the hydrodynamics of the estuary. Altering the land use by allowing extensive grazing of saltmarsh by livestock was found to have the largest impact on wave attenuation, where wave heights on the marsh almost doubled when compared with the no-intervention scenario. On the other hand, managed realignment has a significant impact on tidal currents, where tidal currents reached 0.5 m/s at certain locations. Changes in estuarine hydrodynamics can lead to undesired impacts on flooding and erosion, which stresses the importance of understanding the effects of localized anthropogenic coastal management interventions on the entire estuarine system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Flood Defences)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Artificial Structures Steer Morphological Development of Salt Marshes: A Model Study
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(5), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8050326 - 05 May 2020
Abstract
Salt marshes are increasingly recognized as resilient and sustainable supplements to traditional engineering structures for protecting coasts against flooding. Nevertheless, many salt marshes face severe erosion. There is a consensus that providing structures that create sheltered conditions from high energetic conditions can improve [...] Read more.
Salt marshes are increasingly recognized as resilient and sustainable supplements to traditional engineering structures for protecting coasts against flooding. Nevertheless, many salt marshes face severe erosion. There is a consensus that providing structures that create sheltered conditions from high energetic conditions can improve the potential for salt marsh growth. However, little proof is provided on the explicit influence of structures to promote salt marsh growth. This paper investigates how artificial structures can be used to steer the morphological development of salt marshes. A morphological model (Delft3D Flexible Mesh) was applied, which enabled the analysis of various artificial structures with realistic representation. A salt marsh in the Wadden Sea which has seen heavy erosion (lateral retreat rate of 0.9 m/year) served as case study. We simulate both daily and storm conditions. Hereby, vegetation is represented by an increased bed roughness. The model is able to simulate the governing processes of salt marsh development. Results show that, without artificial structures, erosion of the salt marsh and tidal flat continues. With structures implemented, results indicate that there is potential for salt marsh growth in the study area. Moreover, traditional structures, which were widely implemented in the past, proved to be most effective to stimulate marsh growth. More broadly, the paper indicates how morphological development of a salt marsh can be steered by various configurations of artificial structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Flood Defences)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of An Integrated Numerical Model for Simulating Wave Interaction with Permeable Submerged Breakwaters Using Extended Navier–Stokes Equations
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(2), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8020087 - 01 Feb 2020
Abstract
An integrated two-dimensional vertical (2DV) model was developed to investigate wave interactions with permeable submerged breakwaters. The integrated model is capable of predicting the flow field in both surface water and porous media on the basis of the extended volume-averaged Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations [...] Read more.
An integrated two-dimensional vertical (2DV) model was developed to investigate wave interactions with permeable submerged breakwaters. The integrated model is capable of predicting the flow field in both surface water and porous media on the basis of the extended volume-averaged Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations (VARANS). The impact of porous medium was considered by the inclusion of the additional terms of drag and inertia forces into conventional Navier–Stokes equations. Finite volume method (FVM) in an arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian (ALE) formulation was adopted for discretization of the governing equations. Projection method was utilized to solve the unsteady incompressible extended Navier–Stokes equations. The time-dependent volume and surface porosities were calculated at each time step using the fraction of a grid open to water and the total porosity of porous medium. The numerical model was first verified against analytical solutions of small amplitude progressive Stokes wave and solitary wave propagation in the absence of a bottom-mounted barrier. Comparisons showed pleasing agreements between the numerical predictions and analytical solutions. The model was then further validated by comparing the numerical model results with the experimental measurements of wave propagation over a permeable submerged breakwater reported in the literature. Good agreements were obtained for the free surface elevations at various spatial and temporal scales, velocity fields around and inside the obstacle, as well as the velocity profiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Flood Defences)
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Open AccessArticle
The Sensitivity of a Dike-Marsh System to Sea-Level Rise—A Model-Based Exploration
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8010042 - 15 Jan 2020
Abstract
Integrating natural components in flood defence infrastructure can add resilience to sea-level rise. Natural foreshores can keep pace with sea-level rise by accumulating sediment and attenuate waves before reaching the adjacent flood defences. In this study we address how natural foreshores affect the [...] Read more.
Integrating natural components in flood defence infrastructure can add resilience to sea-level rise. Natural foreshores can keep pace with sea-level rise by accumulating sediment and attenuate waves before reaching the adjacent flood defences. In this study we address how natural foreshores affect the future need for dike heightening. A simplified model of vertical marsh accretion was combined with a wave model and a probabilistic evaluation of dike failure by overtopping. The sensitivity of a marsh-dike system was evaluated in relation to a combination of processes: (1) sea-level rise, (2) changes in sediment concentration, (3) a retreat of the marsh edge, and (4) compaction of the marsh. Results indicate that foreshore processes considerably affect the need for dike heightening in the future. At a low sea-level rise rate, the marshes can accrete such that dike heightening is partially mitigated. But with sea-level rise accelerating, a threshold is reached where dike heightening needs to compensate for the loss of marshes, and for increasing water levels. The level of the threshold depends mostly on the delivery of sediment and degree of compaction on the marsh; with sufficient width of the marsh, lateral erosion only has a minor effect. The study shows how processes and practices that hamper or enhance marsh development today exacerbate or alleviate the challenge of flood protection posed by accelerated sea-level rise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Flood Defences)
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